Next Article in Journal
Pinocembrin–Lecithin Complex: Characterization, Solubilization, and Antioxidant Activities
Next Article in Special Issue
Prognostic Value of Iron-Homeostasis Regulating Peptide Hepcidin in Coronary Heart Disease—Evidence from the Large AtheroGene Study
Previous Article in Journal
Arabidopsis Transcription Factor MYB102 Increases Plant Susceptibility to Aphids by Substantial Activation of Ethylene Biosynthesis
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biomolecules 2018, 8(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8020040

Nontraditional Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Risk Factors: Rationale and Future Perspectives

1
Fondazione G. Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana and Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR San Cataldo Research Area, via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR San Cataldo Research Area, via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecules for Translational Approaches in Cardiology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [254 KB, uploaded 15 June 2018]

Abstract

The primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease depends on the capacity to identify subjects at higher risk long before the occurrence of CV clinical manifestations. Traditional risk factors do not cover fully prediction of individual risk. Moreover, there is an area of gray for patients at intermediate CV risk, which offers wide margins of improvement. These observations highlight the need for new additive tools for a more accurate risk stratification. An increasing number of candidate biomarkers have been identified to predict CV risk and events, although they generally give only a moderate increase when added to currently available predictive scores. The approach utilizing a relative small number of biomarkers in multiple combinations, but only weakly related to each other or unrelated, thus belonging to independent-pathways, and so able to catch the multidimensional characteristic of atherosclerosis, appears promising. We discuss vitamin D and bone turnover biomarkers, hepatitis C virus, and psycho-emotional factors that may reflect alternative pathways over those generally considered for atherosclerosis (e.g., aspects directly related to inflammation and thrombosis). These new biomarkers could facilitate a more accurate assessment of CV risk stratification if incorporated in the current risk assessment algorithms. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk; biomarker; vitamin D; hepatitis C virus; bone turnover biomarkers; psycho-emotional factors cardiovascular risk; biomarker; vitamin D; hepatitis C virus; bone turnover biomarkers; psycho-emotional factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Traghella, I.; Mastorci, F.; Alessia, P.; Pingitore, A.; Vassalle, C. Nontraditional Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Risk Factors: Rationale and Future Perspectives. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 40.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top