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Biomolecules 2015, 5(4), 2194-2206;

Diversity of Endonuclease V: From DNA Repair to RNA Editing

Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan
Academic Editors: Wolf-Dietrich Heyer, Thomas Helleday and Fumio Hanaoka
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage Response)
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Deamination of adenine occurs in DNA, RNA, and their precursors via a hydrolytic reaction and a nitrosative reaction. The generated deaminated products are potentially mutagenic because of their structural similarity to natural bases, which in turn leads to erroneous nucleotide pairing and subsequent disruption of cellular metabolism. Incorporation of deaminated precursors into the nucleic acid strand occurs during nucleotide synthesis by DNA and RNA polymerases or base modification by DNA- and/or RNA-editing enzymes during cellular functions. In such cases, removal of deaminated products from DNA and RNA by a nuclease might be required depending on the cellular function. One such enzyme, endonuclease V, recognizes deoxyinosine and cleaves 3' end of the damaged base in double-stranded DNA through an alternative excision repair mechanism in Escherichia coli, whereas in Homo sapiens, it recognizes and cleaves inosine in single-stranded RNA. However, to explore the role of endonuclease V in vivo, a detailed analysis of cell biology is required. Based on recent reports and developments on endonuclease V, we discuss the potential functions of endonuclease V in DNA repair and RNA metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: deamination; endonuclease V; DNA repair; RNA editing deamination; endonuclease V; DNA repair; RNA editing

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Kuraoka, I. Diversity of Endonuclease V: From DNA Repair to RNA Editing. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2194-2206.

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