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Strategies for the Use of Poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing

Cancer Research UK, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK
Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2013, 3(1), 1-17;
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 1 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage Response)
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational protein modification involved in the regulation of important cellular functions including DNA repair, transcription, mitosis and apoptosis. The amount of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) in cells reflects the balance of synthesis, mediated by the PARP protein family, and degradation, which is catalyzed by a glycohydrolase, PARG. Many of the proteins mediating PAR metabolism possess specialised high affinity PAR-binding modules that allow the efficient sensing or processing of the PAR signal. The identification of four such PAR-binding modules and the characterization of a number of proteins utilising these elements during the last decade has provided important insights into how PAR regulates different cellular activities. The macrodomain represents a unique PAR-binding module which is, in some instances, known to possess enzymatic activity on ADP-ribose derivatives (in addition to PAR-binding). The most recently discovered example for this is the PARG protein, and several available PARG structures have provided an understanding into how the PARG macrodomain evolved into a major enzyme that maintains PAR homeostasis in living cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Poly(ADP-ribose); PARP; PARG; macrodomain; protein modification Poly(ADP-ribose); PARP; PARG; macrodomain; protein modification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Žaja, R.; Mikoč, A.; Barkauskaite, E.; Ahel, I. Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 1-17.

AMA Style

Žaja R, Mikoč A, Barkauskaite E, Ahel I. Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing. Biomolecules. 2013; 3(1):1-17.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Žaja, Roko, Andreja Mikoč, Eva Barkauskaite, and Ivan Ahel. 2013. "Molecular Insights into Poly(ADP-ribose) Recognition and Processing" Biomolecules 3, no. 1: 1-17.

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