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Article

Grape Pomace for Topical Application: Green NaDES Sustainable Extraction, Skin Permeation Studies, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities Characterization in 3D Human Keratinocytes

1
Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician”, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
4
Interdepartmental Centre for Renewable Sources, Environment, Sea and Energy (CIRI FRAME), Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 48123 Bologna, Italy
5
Biostructures and Biosystems National Institute (INBB), 00136 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Anika Wagner and Giovanni Cilia
Biomolecules 2021, 11(8), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081181
Received: 8 July 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 4 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Compounds against Animal and Human Pathogens)
Food waste is a global problem due to its environmental and economic impact, so there is great demand for the exploitation of new functional applications. The winemaking process leads to an incomplete extraction of high-value compounds, leaving the pomace still rich in polyphenols. This study was aimed at optimising and validating sustainable routes toward the extraction and further valorisation of these polyphenols, particularly for cosmeceutical applications. New formulations based on red grape pomace polyphenols and natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDESs) were here investigated, namely betaine combined with citric acid (BET-CA), urea (BET-U) and ethylene glycol (BET-EG), in which DESs were used both as extracting and carrying agents for polyphenols. The flavonoid profile determined by HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed similar malvidin content (51–56 μg mL−1) in the DES combinations, while BET-CA gave the best permeation performance in Franz cells, so it was further investigated in 3D human keratinocytes (HaCat spheroids) injured with the pro-oxidant agent menadione. BET-CA treatment showed good intracellular antioxidant activity (IC50 0.15 ± 0.02 μg mL−1 in malvidin content) and significantly decreased (p < 0.001) the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8, improving cell viability. Thus, BET-CA formulation is worthy of investigation for potential use as a cosmetic ingredient to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, which are causes of skin aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: red grape pomace skin; natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES); malvidin; skin permeation; human 3D keratinocytes; oxidative stress; inflammation red grape pomace skin; natural deep eutectic solvents (NaDES); malvidin; skin permeation; human 3D keratinocytes; oxidative stress; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Punzo, A.; Porru, E.; Silla, A.; Simoni, P.; Galletti, P.; Roda, A.; Tagliavini, E.; Samorì, C.; Caliceti, C. Grape Pomace for Topical Application: Green NaDES Sustainable Extraction, Skin Permeation Studies, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities Characterization in 3D Human Keratinocytes. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1181. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081181

AMA Style

Punzo A, Porru E, Silla A, Simoni P, Galletti P, Roda A, Tagliavini E, Samorì C, Caliceti C. Grape Pomace for Topical Application: Green NaDES Sustainable Extraction, Skin Permeation Studies, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities Characterization in 3D Human Keratinocytes. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(8):1181. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Punzo, Angela, Emanuele Porru, Alessia Silla, Patrizia Simoni, Paola Galletti, Aldo Roda, Emilio Tagliavini, Chiara Samorì, and Cristiana Caliceti. 2021. "Grape Pomace for Topical Application: Green NaDES Sustainable Extraction, Skin Permeation Studies, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities Characterization in 3D Human Keratinocytes" Biomolecules 11, no. 8: 1181. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11081181

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