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Review

On the Role of Paraoxonase-1 and Chemokine Ligand 2 (C-C motif) in Metabolic Alterations Linked to Inflammation and Disease. A 2021 Update

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Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vladimir N. Uversky
Biomolecules 2021, 11(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070971
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemokines in Infectious and Non-infectious Diseases)
Infectious and many non-infectious diseases share common molecular mechanisms. Among them, oxidative stress and the subsequent inflammatory reaction are of particular note. Metabolic disorders induced by external agents, be they bacterial or viral pathogens, excessive calorie intake, poor-quality nutrients, or environmental factors produce an imbalance between the production of free radicals and endogenous antioxidant systems; the consequence being the oxidation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidation and inflammation are closely related, and whether oxidative stress and inflammation represent the causes or consequences of cellular pathology, both produce metabolic alterations that influence the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we highlight two key molecules in the regulation of these processes: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2). PON1 is an enzyme bound to high-density lipoproteins. It breaks down lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells, participates in the protection conferred by HDL against different infectious agents, and is considered part of the innate immune system. With PON1 deficiency, CCL2 production increases, inducing migration and infiltration of immune cells in target tissues and disturbing normal metabolic function. This disruption involves pathways controlling cellular homeostasis as well as metabolically-driven chronic inflammatory states. Hence, an understanding of these relationships would help improve treatments and, as well, identify new therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cardiovascular disease; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; fatty liver; infection; inflammation; metabolism; obesity; paraoxonase-1 cancer; cardiovascular disease; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; fatty liver; infection; inflammation; metabolism; obesity; paraoxonase-1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Camps, J.; Castañé, H.; Rodríguez-Tomàs, E.; Baiges-Gaya, G.; Hernández-Aguilera, A.; Arenas, M.; Iftimie, S.; Joven, J. On the Role of Paraoxonase-1 and Chemokine Ligand 2 (C-C motif) in Metabolic Alterations Linked to Inflammation and Disease. A 2021 Update. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070971

AMA Style

Camps J, Castañé H, Rodríguez-Tomàs E, Baiges-Gaya G, Hernández-Aguilera A, Arenas M, Iftimie S, Joven J. On the Role of Paraoxonase-1 and Chemokine Ligand 2 (C-C motif) in Metabolic Alterations Linked to Inflammation and Disease. A 2021 Update. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(7):971. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070971

Chicago/Turabian Style

Camps, Jordi, Helena Castañé, Elisabet Rodríguez-Tomàs, Gerard Baiges-Gaya, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Meritxell Arenas, Simona Iftimie, and Jorge Joven. 2021. "On the Role of Paraoxonase-1 and Chemokine Ligand 2 (C-C motif) in Metabolic Alterations Linked to Inflammation and Disease. A 2021 Update" Biomolecules 11, no. 7: 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11070971

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