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Article

Plasma Extracellular Vesicle α-Synuclein Level in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

by 1,2,3,†, 1,2,†, 1, 4,5,* and 1,2,*
1
Department of Neurology, Taipei Medical University–Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan
2
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan 71004, Taiwan
5
Department of Recreation and Healthcare Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editors: Maria Xilouri, Evangelia Emmanouilidou and Alexia Polissidis
Biomolecules 2021, 11(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050744
Received: 6 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 15 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in α-Synuclein Neurobiology in Health and Disease)
Background: The most established pathognomonic protein of Parkinson’s disease (PD), α-synuclein, is extensively investigated for disease diagnosis and prognosis; however, investigations into whether the free form of α-synuclein in the blood functions as a PD biomarker have not been fruitful. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from cells and present in blood transport molecules are novel platforms for biomarker identification. In blood EVs, α-synuclein originates predominantly from the brain without the interference of the blood–brain barrier. The present study investigated the role of plasma EV-borne α-synuclein as a biomarker of PD. Methods: Patients with mild to moderate stages of PD (n = 116) and individuals without PD (n = 46) were recruited to serve as the PD study group and the control group, respectively. Plasma EVs were isolated, and immunomagnetic reduction–based immunoassay was used to assess EV α-synuclein levels. Conventional statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 25.0, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Compared with controls, we observed significantly lower plasma EV α-synuclein levels in the patients with PD (PD: 56.0 ± 3.7 fg/mL vs. control: 74.5 ± 4.3 fg/mL, p = 0.009), and the significance remained after adjustment for age and sex. Plasma EV α-synuclein levels in the patients with PD did not correlate with age, disease duration, Part I and II scores of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), or the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. However, such levels were significantly correlated with UPDRS Part III score, which assesses motor dysfunction. Furthermore, the severity of akinetic-rigidity symptoms, but not tremor, was inversely associated with plasma EV α-synuclein level. Conclusion: Plasma EV α-synuclein was significantly different between the control and PD group and was associated with akinetic-rigidity symptom severity in patients with PD. This study corroborates the possible diagnostic and subtyping roles of plasma EV α-synuclein in patients with PD, and it further provides a basis for this protein’s clinical relevance and feasibility as a PD biomarker. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; Parkinson’s disease; akinetic-rigidity; α-synuclein extracellular vesicles; Parkinson’s disease; akinetic-rigidity; α-synuclein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chung, C.-C.; Chan, L.; Chen, J.-H.; Hung, Y.-C.; Hong, C.-T. Plasma Extracellular Vesicle α-Synuclein Level in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050744

AMA Style

Chung C-C, Chan L, Chen J-H, Hung Y-C, Hong C-T. Plasma Extracellular Vesicle α-Synuclein Level in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(5):744. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chung, Chen-Chih, Lung Chan, Jia-Hung Chen, Yi-Chieh Hung, and Chien-Tai Hong. 2021. "Plasma Extracellular Vesicle α-Synuclein Level in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease" Biomolecules 11, no. 5: 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11050744

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