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Article

A Time-Kill Assay Study on the Synergistic Bactericidal Activity of Pomegranate Rind Extract and Zn (II) against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

1
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
2
Oral and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eleonora Pagnotta, Luisa Ugolini and Giovanni Cilia
Biomolecules 2021, 11(12), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121889
Received: 1 November 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 13 December 2021 / Published: 16 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Compounds against Animal and Human Pathogens)
There is a need for new antimicrobial systems due to increased global resistance to current antimicrobials. Pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and Zn (II) ions both possess a level of antimicrobial activity and work has previously shown that PRE/Zn (II) in combination possesses synergistic activity against Herpes simplex virus and Micrococcus luteus. Here, we determined whether such synergistic activity extended to other, more pathogenic, bacteria. Reference strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cultured and subjected to challenge by PRE, Zn (II), or PRE + Zn (II), in time-kill assays. Data were obtained independently by two researchers using different PRE preparations. Statistically significant synergistic activity for PRE + Zn (II) was shown for all four bacterial strains tested compared to untreated controls, although the extent of efficacy and timescales varied. Zn (II) exerted activity and at 1 h, it was not possible to distinguish with PRE + Zn (II) combination treatment in all cases. PRE alone showed low activity against all four bacteria. Reproducible synergistic bactericidal activity involving PRE and Zn (II) has been confirmed. Potential mechanisms are discussed. The development of a therapeutic system that possesses demonstrable antimicrobial activity is supported which lends itself particularly to topical delivery applications, for example MRSA infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: PRE; zinc; synergistic activity; time-kill assay; Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Staphylococcus epidermidis; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa PRE; zinc; synergistic activity; time-kill assay; Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Staphylococcus epidermidis; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alrashidi, A.; Jafar, M.; Higgins, N.; Mulligan, C.; Varricchio, C.; Moseley, R.; Celiksoy, V.; Houston, D.M.J.; Heard, C.M. A Time-Kill Assay Study on the Synergistic Bactericidal Activity of Pomegranate Rind Extract and Zn (II) against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121889

AMA Style

Alrashidi A, Jafar M, Higgins N, Mulligan C, Varricchio C, Moseley R, Celiksoy V, Houston DMJ, Heard CM. A Time-Kill Assay Study on the Synergistic Bactericidal Activity of Pomegranate Rind Extract and Zn (II) against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(12):1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121889

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alrashidi, Amal, Mohammed Jafar, Niamh Higgins, Ciara Mulligan, Carmine Varricchio, Ryan Moseley, Vildan Celiksoy, David M. J. Houston, and Charles M. Heard. 2021. "A Time-Kill Assay Study on the Synergistic Bactericidal Activity of Pomegranate Rind Extract and Zn (II) against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa" Biomolecules 11, no. 12: 1889. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11121889

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