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Impact of Selenium on Biomarkers and Clinical Aspects Related to Ageing. A Review

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Center for Clinical Heart Research, Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, N-0370 Oslo, Norway
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 222 Skøyen, N-0213 Oslo, Norway
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, N-2381 Brumunddal, Norway
Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, N-2624 Lillehammer, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zhihong Yang
Biomolecules 2021, 11(10), 1478;
Received: 28 August 2021 / Revised: 30 September 2021 / Accepted: 4 October 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic and Essential Metals in Human Health and Disease 2021)
Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary trace element that plays an important role in the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, infections, and cancer. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine in the active center and include, i.a., the enzymes thioredoxin reductases (TXNRD1–3), glutathione peroxidases (GPX1–4 and GPX6) and methionine sulfoxide reductase, involved in immune functions, metabolic homeostasis, and antioxidant defense. Ageing is an inevitable process, which, i.a., involves an imbalance between antioxidative defense and reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in protein and mitochondrial renewal, telomere attrition, cellular senescence, epigenetic alterations, and stem cell exhaustion. These conditions are associated with mild to moderate inflammation, which always accompanies the process of ageing and age-related diseases. In older individuals, Se, by being a component in protective enzymes, operates by decreasing ROS-mediated inflammation, removing misfolded proteins, decreasing DNA damage, and promoting telomere length. Se-dependent GPX1–4 and TXNRD1–3 directly suppress oxidative stress. Selenoprotein H in the cell nucleus protects DNA, and selenoproteins residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assist in the removal of misfolded proteins and protection against ER stress. In this review, we highlight the role of adequate Se status for human ageing and prevention of age-related diseases, and further its proposed role in preservation of telomere length in middle-aged and elderly individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: selenium; ageing; cardiovascular; cancer; sirtuins; telomeres selenium; ageing; cardiovascular; cancer; sirtuins; telomeres
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alehagen, U.; Opstad, T.B.; Alexander, J.; Larsson, A.; Aaseth, J. Impact of Selenium on Biomarkers and Clinical Aspects Related to Ageing. A Review. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1478.

AMA Style

Alehagen U, Opstad TB, Alexander J, Larsson A, Aaseth J. Impact of Selenium on Biomarkers and Clinical Aspects Related to Ageing. A Review. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(10):1478.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alehagen, Urban, Trine B. Opstad, Jan Alexander, Anders Larsson, and Jan Aaseth. 2021. "Impact of Selenium on Biomarkers and Clinical Aspects Related to Ageing. A Review" Biomolecules 11, no. 10: 1478.

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