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Review

Applications of Cytokinins in Horticultural Fruit Crops: Trends and Future Prospects

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Indigenous Knowledge Systems Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2745, South Africa
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Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2745, South Africa
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Postharvest Research Laboratory, Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
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Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
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Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa
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Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plants, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Faculty of Science, Palacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(9), 1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091222
Received: 8 August 2020 / Revised: 15 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 22 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytohormones 2020)
Cytokinins (CKs) are a chemically diverse class of plant growth regulators, exhibiting wide-ranging actions on plant growth and development, hence their exploitation in agriculture for crop improvement and management. Their coordinated regulatory effects and cross-talk interactions with other phytohormones and signaling networks are highly sophisticated, eliciting and controlling varied biological processes at the cellular to organismal levels. In this review, we briefly introduce the mode of action and general molecular biological effects of naturally occurring CKs before highlighting the great variability in the response of fruit crops to CK-based innovations. We present a comprehensive compilation of research linked to the application of CKs in non-model crop species in different phases of fruit production and management. By doing so, it is clear that the effects of CKs on fruit set, development, maturation, and ripening are not necessarily generic, even for cultivars within the same species, illustrating the magnitude of yet unknown intricate biochemical and genetic mechanisms regulating these processes in different fruit crops. Current approaches using genomic-to-metabolomic analysis are providing new insights into the in planta mechanisms of CKs, pinpointing the underlying CK-derived actions that may serve as potential targets for improving crop-specific traits and the development of new solutions for the preharvest and postharvest management of fruit crops. Where information is available, CK molecular biology is discussed in the context of its present and future implications in the applications of CKs to fruits of horticultural significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: abiotic stress; biotechnology; food security; micropropagation; shoot proliferation; somatic embryogenesis; phytohormones; plant growth regulators; postharvest; quality attributes abiotic stress; biotechnology; food security; micropropagation; shoot proliferation; somatic embryogenesis; phytohormones; plant growth regulators; postharvest; quality attributes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aremu, A.O.; Fawole, O.A.; Makunga, N.P.; Masondo, N.A.; Moyo, M.; Buthelezi, N.M.D.; Amoo, S.O.; Spíchal, L.; Doležal, K. Applications of Cytokinins in Horticultural Fruit Crops: Trends and Future Prospects. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1222. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091222

AMA Style

Aremu AO, Fawole OA, Makunga NP, Masondo NA, Moyo M, Buthelezi NMD, Amoo SO, Spíchal L, Doležal K. Applications of Cytokinins in Horticultural Fruit Crops: Trends and Future Prospects. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(9):1222. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aremu, Adeyemi O., Olaniyi A. Fawole, Nokwanda P. Makunga, Nqobile A. Masondo, Mack Moyo, Nana M.D. Buthelezi, Stephen O. Amoo, Lukáš Spíchal, and Karel Doležal. 2020. "Applications of Cytokinins in Horticultural Fruit Crops: Trends and Future Prospects" Biomolecules 10, no. 9: 1222. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10091222

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