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Review

Immunomodulatory Activities of Selected Essential Oils

by 1, 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Center of Excellence Food Technology and Nutrition, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Stelzhamerstraße 23, 4600 Wels, Austria
2
FFoQSI GmbH-Austrian Competence Centre for Feed and Food Quality, Safety and Innovation, Technopark 1C, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(8), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081139
Received: 27 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives of Essential Oils)
Recently, the application of herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases has gained increasing attention. Essential oils (EOs) are generally known to exert various pharmacological effects, such as antiallergic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Current literature involving in vitro and in vivo studies indicates the potential of various herbal essential oils as suitable immunomodulators for the alternative treatment of infectious or immune diseases. This review highlights the cellular effects induced by EOs, as well as the molecular impacts of EOs on cytokines, immunoglobulins, or regulatory pathways. The results reviewed in this article revealed a significant reduction in relevant proinflammatory cytokines, as well as induction of anti-inflammatory markers. Remarkably, very little clinical study data involving the immunomodulatory effects of EOs are available. Furthermore, several studies led to contradictory results, emphasizing the need for a multiapproach system to better characterize EOs. While immunomodulatory effects were reported, the toxic potential of EOs must be clearly considered in order to secure future applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; immunomodulatory; eucalyptus; clove; tea tree; lavender essential oils; immunomodulatory; eucalyptus; clove; tea tree; lavender
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sandner, G.; Heckmann, M.; Weghuber, J. Immunomodulatory Activities of Selected Essential Oils. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081139

AMA Style

Sandner G, Heckmann M, Weghuber J. Immunomodulatory Activities of Selected Essential Oils. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(8):1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081139

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sandner, Georg, Mara Heckmann, and Julian Weghuber. 2020. "Immunomodulatory Activities of Selected Essential Oils" Biomolecules 10, no. 8: 1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10081139

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