Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for most liver cancers and represents one of the deadliest cancers in the world. Despite the global demand for liver cancer treatments, there remain few options available. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Lumoxiti, a CD22-targeting immunotoxin, as a treatment for patients with hairy cell leukemia. This approval helps to demonstrate the potential role that immunotoxins can play in the cancer therapeutics pipeline. However, concerns have been raised about the use of immunotoxins, including their high immunogenicity and short half-life, in particular for treating solid tumors such as liver cancer. This review provides an overview of recent efforts to develop a glypican-3 (GPC3) targeting immunotoxin for treating HCC, including strategies to deimmunize immunotoxins by removing B
- or T
-cell epitopes on the bacterial toxin and to improve the serum half-life of immunotoxins by incorporating an albumin binding domain.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited