Ribosomes are perhaps the most critical macromolecular machine as they are tasked with carrying out protein synthesis in cells. They are incredibly complex structures composed of protein components and heavily chemically modified RNAs. The task of assembling mature ribosomes from their component parts consumes a massive amount of energy and requires greater than 200 assembly factors. Among the most critical of these are small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins (snoRNPs). These are small RNAs complexed with diverse sets of proteins. As suggested by their name, they localize to the nucleolus, the site of ribosome biogenesis. There, they facilitate multiple roles in ribosomes biogenesis, such as pseudouridylation and 2′-O
-methylation of ribosomal (r)RNA, guiding pre-rRNA processing, and acting as molecular chaperones. Here, we reviewed their activity in promoting the assembly of ribosomes in eukaryotes with regards to chemical modification and pre-rRNA processing.
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