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Open AccessArticle

Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld Alleviates Acute Pain and Inflammation: Potential Mechanisms of Action

1
Department of Structural and Functional Biology (Physiology), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences, Botucatu 18618-970, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Coastal Campus, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São Vicente 11330-900, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Department of Structural and Functional Biology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-862, São Paulo, Brazil
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Botany Department, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Biosciences Institute, Botucatu 18618-970, São Paulo, Brazil
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Laboratory of Neurobiology of Pain and Inflammation, Department of Physiological Sciences, Central of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Trindade, Florianopolis 88040-900, Santa Catarina, Brazil
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School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, São Paulo University (USP), São Paulo 03828-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(4), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10040590
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 6 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants)
Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld (Fabaceae) known in Brazil as “jacaranda de espinho” or “espinheira santa nativa” is a medicinal plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat ulcers, cough and diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from M. hirtum twig (HEMh) using in vivo experimental models of nociception through the involvement of transient receptor potential channels, acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC), nitrergic, opioidergic, glutamatergic, and supraspinal pathways. Our results revealed an antinociceptive effect of HEMh mediated by the opioidergic, l-arginine-nitric oxide and glutamate systems, as well as by interactions with TRPA1/ASIC channels. The anti-inflammatory effect of HEMh evaluated with a xylene-induced ear edema and by the involvement of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) showed involvement of the COX pathway, based on observed decreases in PGE2 levels. A phytochemical investigation of the HEMh led to the isolation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, allantoin, apigenin-7-methoxy-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-C-β-d-xylopyranoside. In conclusion, the acute oral administration of HEMh inhibits the nociceptive behavioral response in animals through the nitrergic, opioid, glutamatergic pathways, and by inhibition of the TRPA1 and ASIC channels, without causing locomotor dysfunction. In addition, its anti-inflammatory effect is associated with the COX pathway and decreased PGE2 levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: Machaerium hirtum; antinociceptive effect; anti-inflammatory action Machaerium hirtum; antinociceptive effect; anti-inflammatory action
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Lopes, J.A.; Rodrigues, V.P.; Tangerina, M.M.P.; Rocha, L.R.M.; Nishijima, C.M.; Nunes, V.V.A.; de Almeida, L.F.R.; Vilegas, W.; dos Santos, A.R.S.; Sannomiya, M.; Hiruma-Lima, C.A. Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld Alleviates Acute Pain and Inflammation: Potential Mechanisms of Action. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 590.

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