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Comparison of Ginsenoside Components of Various Tissues of New Zealand Forest-Grown Asian Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and American Ginseng (Panax Quinquefolium L.)
Open AccessReview

Pro-Resolving Effect of Ginsenosides as an Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Panax ginseng

by Dong-Soon Im 1,2
1
Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
Biomolecules 2020, 10(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10030444
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ginsenosides)
Panax ginseng, also known as Korean ginseng, is a famous medicinal plant used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. Ginsenosides (ginseng saponins) are the main class of active constituents of ginseng. The anti-inflammatory effects of ginseng extracts were proven with purified ginsenosides, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, and Rh2, as well as compound K. The negative regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and enzyme expressions (iNOS and COX-2) was found as the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginsenosides in M1-polarized macrophages and microglia. Recently, another action mechanism emerged explaining the anti-inflammatory effect of ginseng. This is a pro-resolution of inflammation derived by M2-polarized macrophages. Direct and indirect evidence supports how several ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg3, Rb1, and Rg1) induce the M2 polarization of macrophages and microglia, and how these M2-polarized cells contribute to the suppression of inflammation progression and promotion of inflammation resolution. In this review, the new action mechanism of ginseng anti-inflammation is summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginsenoside; anti-inflammation; pro-resolving; ginseng; macrophage; M2 polarization ginsenoside; anti-inflammation; pro-resolving; ginseng; macrophage; M2 polarization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Im, D.-S. Pro-Resolving Effect of Ginsenosides as an Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Panax ginseng. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 444.

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