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Article

Biological Effects of Glucosinolate Degradation Products from Horseradish: A Horse that Wins the Race

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Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 33, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Split, Šoltanska 2, 2100 Split, Croatia
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020343
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 20 February 2020 / Published: 21 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules)
Horseradish degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates (ITC) and nitriles, along with their precursors glucosinolates, were characterized by GC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Volatiles from horseradish leaves and roots were isolated using microwave assisted-distillation (MAD), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) and hydrodistillation (HD). Allyl ITC was predominant in the leaves regardless of the isolation method while MAD, MHG, and HD of the roots resulted in different yields of allyl ITC, 2-phenylethyl ITC, and their nitriles. The antimicrobial potential of roots volatiles and their main compounds was assessed against sixteen emerging food spoilage and opportunistic pathogens. The MHG isolate was the most active, inhibiting bacteria at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from only 3.75 to 30 µg/mL, and fungi at MIC50 between <0.12 and 0.47 µg/mL. Cytotoxic activity of volatile isolates and their main compounds were tested against two human cancer cell lines using MTT assay after 72 h. The roots volatiles showed best cytotoxic activity (HD; IC50 = 2.62 μg/mL) against human lung A549 and human bladder T24 cancer cell lines (HD; IC50 = 0.57 μg/mL). Generally, 2-phenylethyl ITC, which was tested for its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities along with two other major components allyl ITC and 3-phenylpropanenitrile, showed the best biological activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: horseradish; glucosinolates; isothiocyanates; microwave-assisted isolation; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxic activity horseradish; glucosinolates; isothiocyanates; microwave-assisted isolation; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxic activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Popović, M.; Maravić, A.; Čikeš Čulić, V.; Đulović, A.; Burčul, F.; Blažević, I. Biological Effects of Glucosinolate Degradation Products from Horseradish: A Horse that Wins the Race. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 343. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020343

AMA Style

Popović M, Maravić A, Čikeš Čulić V, Đulović A, Burčul F, Blažević I. Biological Effects of Glucosinolate Degradation Products from Horseradish: A Horse that Wins the Race. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(2):343. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020343

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popović, Marijana; Maravić, Ana; Čikeš Čulić, Vedrana; Đulović, Azra; Burčul, Franko; Blažević, Ivica. 2020. "Biological Effects of Glucosinolate Degradation Products from Horseradish: A Horse that Wins the Race" Biomolecules 10, no. 2: 343. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10020343

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