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Open AccessArticle

Detection and Characterization of Antibacterial Siderophores Secreted by Endophytic Fungi from Cymbidium aloifolium

1
Fungal Metabolites Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 056, India
2
Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka 570 006, India
3
Laboratory of Plant Healthcare and Diagnostics, PG Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Karnataka University, Dharwad, Karnataka 570 006, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(10), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101412
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 6 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Formulations in Agri-Food-Pharma: Source and Applications)
Endophytic fungi from orchid plants are reported to secrete secondary metabolites which include bioactive antimicrobial siderophores. In this study endophytic fungi capable of secreting siderophores were isolated from Cymbidium aloifolium, a medicinal orchid plant. The isolated extracellular siderophores from orchidaceous fungi act as chelating agents forming soluble complexes with Fe3+. The 60% endophytic fungi of Cymbidium aloifolium produced hydroxamate siderophore on CAS agar. The highest siderophore percentage was 57% in Penicillium chrysogenum (CAL1), 49% in Aspergillus sydowii (CAR12), 46% in Aspergillus terreus (CAR14) by CAS liquid assay. The optimum culture parameters for siderophore production were 30 °C, pH 6.5, maltose and ammonium nitrate and the highest resulting siderophore content was 73% in P. chrysogenum. The total protein content of solvent-purified siderophore increased four-fold compared with crude filtrate. The percent Fe3+ scavenged was detected by atomic absorption spectra analysis and the highest scavenging value was 83% by P. chrysogenum. Thin layer chromatography of purified P. chrysogenum siderophore showed a wine-colored spot with Rf value of 0.54. HPLC peaks with Rts of 10.5 and 12.5 min were obtained for iron-free and iron-bound P. chrysogenum siderophore, respectively. The iron-free P. chrysogenum siderophore revealed an exact mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 400.46 and iron-bound P. chrysogenum siderophore revealed a m/z of 453.35. The solvent-extracted siderophores inhibited the virulent plant pathogens Ralstonia solanacearum, that causes bacterial wilt in groundnut and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which causes bacterial blight disease in rice. Thus, bioactive siderophore-producing endophytic P. chrysogenum can be exploited in the form of formulations for development of resistance against other phytopathogens in crop plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: siderophore; endophytic fungi; orchid; CAS agar; Penicillium chrysogenum; plant pathogens; bioformulation siderophore; endophytic fungi; orchid; CAS agar; Penicillium chrysogenum; plant pathogens; bioformulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chowdappa, S.; Jagannath, S.; Konappa, N.; Udayashankar, A.C.; Jogaiah, S. Detection and Characterization of Antibacterial Siderophores Secreted by Endophytic Fungi from Cymbidium aloifolium. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1412. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101412

AMA Style

Chowdappa S, Jagannath S, Konappa N, Udayashankar AC, Jogaiah S. Detection and Characterization of Antibacterial Siderophores Secreted by Endophytic Fungi from Cymbidium aloifolium. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(10):1412. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101412

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chowdappa, Srinivas; Jagannath, Shubha; Konappa, Narasimhamurthy; Udayashankar, Arakere C.; Jogaiah, Sudisha. 2020. "Detection and Characterization of Antibacterial Siderophores Secreted by Endophytic Fungi from Cymbidium aloifolium" Biomolecules 10, no. 10: 1412. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101412

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