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Open AccessArticle

Distinct Peculiarities of In Planta Synthesis of Isoprenoid and Aromatic Cytokinins

1
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str. 32, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya 35, 127276 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010086
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 25 December 2019 / Accepted: 29 December 2019 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytohormones)
The biosynthesis of aromatic cytokinins in planta, unlike isoprenoid cytokinins, is still unknown. To compare the final steps of biosynthesis pathways of aromatic and isoprenoid cytokinins, we synthesized a series of nucleoside derivatives of natural cytokinins starting from acyl-protected ribofuranosyl-, 2′-deoxyribofuranosyl- and 5′-deoxyribofuranosyladenine derivatives using stereoselective alkylation with further deblocking. Their cytokinin activity was determined in two bioassays based on model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Amaranthus caudatus. Unlike cytokinins, cytokinin nucleosides lack the hormonal activity until the ribose moiety is removed. According to our experiments, ribo-, 2′-deoxyribo- and 5′-deoxyribo-derivatives of isoprenoid cytokinin N6-isopentenyladenine turned in planta into active cytokinins with clear hormonal activity. As for aromatic cytokinins, both 2′-deoxyribo- and 5′-deoxyribo-derivatives did not exhibit analogous activity in Arabidopsis. The 5′-deoxyribo-derivatives cannot be phosphorylated enzymatically in vivo; therefore, they cannot be “activated” by the direct LOG-mediated cleavage, largely occurring with cytokinin ribonucleotides in plant cells. The contrasting effects exerted by deoxyribonucleosides of isoprenoid (true hormonal activity) and aromatic (almost no activity) cytokinins indicates a significant difference in the biosynthesis of these compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokinins; biosynthesis; cytokinin nucleosides; cytokinin activity; plant hormones cytokinins; biosynthesis; cytokinin nucleosides; cytokinin activity; plant hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oslovsky, V.E.; Savelieva, E.M.; Drenichev, M.S.; Romanov, G.A.; Mikhailov, S.N. Distinct Peculiarities of In Planta Synthesis of Isoprenoid and Aromatic Cytokinins. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 86.

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