Immune activation in the central nervous system involves mostly microglia in response to pathogen invasion or tissue damage, which react, promoting a self-limiting inflammatory response aimed to restore homeostasis. However, prolonged, uncontrolled inflammation may result in the production by microglia of neurotoxic factors that lead to the amplification of the disease state and tissue damage. In particular, specific inducers of inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases activate inflammatory processes that result in the production of a number of mediators and cytokines that enhance neurodegenerative processes. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) constitute a family of enzymes regulating a wide range of activity, including signal transduction. Recent studies have focused attention on the intracellular role of PI3K and its contribution to neurodegenerative processes. This review illustrates and discusses recent findings about the role of this signaling pathway in the modulation of microglia neuroinflammatory responses linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss the modulation of PI3K as a potential therapeutic approach helpful for developing innovative therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative diseases.
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