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Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of Rare-Earth Elements in LHD Plasmas

Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Japan
Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554, Japan
Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Japan
College of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai 487-8501, Japan
School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atoms 2019, 7(3), 66;
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 30 June 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atomic Processes in Plasmas: APiP-2019)
PDF [294 KB, uploaded 3 July 2019]


Soft X-ray spectra from high Z rare-earth (lanthanide) elements have been systematically observed in optically thin, high-temperature plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD), a facility for magnetically confined fusion research. It has been demonstrated that the discrete and quasicontinuum (UTA) spectral features from highly charged lanthanide ions are observed depending on the plasma temperature. The analyses of the measured spectra are ongoing by comparisons with theoretical calculations and/or previous experimental data available. The discrete spectra recorded in high-temperature conditions are dominated by individual lines of Ge- to Ni-like ions, while prominent peaks in the narrowed UTA spectra observed in low-temperature conditions are well explained by the transitions of Ag- to Rh-like ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: soft X-ray spectroscopy; rare-earth; lanthanides; LHD; UTA; CR model soft X-ray spectroscopy; rare-earth; lanthanides; LHD; UTA; CR model

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Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; O’Sullivan, G. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy of Rare-Earth Elements in LHD Plasmas. Atoms 2019, 7, 66.

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