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Energy Considerations of Classical Electromagnetic Zero-Point Radiation and a Specific Probability Calculation in Stochastic Electrodynamics
Open AccessArticle

Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods

Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0425, USA
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Atoms 2019, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020051
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 12 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Electrodynamics)
In research articles and patents several methods have been proposed for the extraction of zero-point energy from the vacuum. None of the proposals have been reliably demonstrated, yet they remain largely unchallenged. In this paper the underlying thermodynamics principles of equilibrium, detailed balance, and conservation laws are presented for zero-point energy extraction. The proposed methods are separated into three classes: nonlinear processing of the zero-point field, mechanical extraction using Casimir cavities, and the pumping of atoms through Casimir cavities. The first two approaches are shown to violate thermodynamics principles, and therefore appear not to be feasible, no matter how innovative their execution. The third approach, based upon stochastic electrodynamics, does not appear to violate these principles, but may face other obstacles. Initial experimental results are tantalizing but, given the lower than expected power output, inconclusive. View Full-Text
Keywords: zero-point energy; quantum vacuum; vacuum energy; detailed balance; casimir cavity; stochastic electrodynamics zero-point energy; quantum vacuum; vacuum energy; detailed balance; casimir cavity; stochastic electrodynamics
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Moddel, G.; Dmitriyeva, O. Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods. Atoms 2019, 7, 51.

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