# Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Analysis

#### 2.1. Nonlinear Processing of the Zero-Point Field

#### 2.1.1. Rectification of Zero-Point Fluctuations in a Diode

#### 2.1.2. Harvesting of Vacuum Fluctuations Using a Down-Converter and Antenna-Coupled Rectifier

^{3}dependence, shown in Equation (1), the ZPF power density at microwave frequencies is too low to provide practical power. Therefore, to obtain practical levels of power, a rectenna must operate at higher frequencies, such as those of visible light or even higher. There are diodes that operate at petahertz frequencies. One example is a graphene geometric diode [26] but the rectification power efficiency of optical rectennas at such high frequencies is generally low [27]. The first question about ZPF rectification is how it can be made practical. The second, and more important question here, is whether this is feasible from fundamental considerations. I address these in turn.

- (a)
- Producing lower beat frequency radiation from the ambient ZPF;
- (b)
- Collecting the beat-frequency radiation at the diode by the antenna;
- (c)
- Rectification of the concentrated radiation by the diode.

#### 2.1.3. Nonlinear Processing of Background Fields in Nature

#### 2.2. Mechanical Extraction Using Casimir Cavities

_{h}is the temperature of hot source and T

_{c}is the temperature of the cold sink.

#### 2.2.1. Energy Exchange between Casimir Plates and an Electrical Power Supply

#### 2.2.2. Cyclic Power Extraction from Casimir Cavity Oscillations

#### 2.3. Pumping Atoms through Casimir Cavities

#### 2.3.1. Zero-Point Energy Ground State and Casimir Cavities

_{2}gas flowing through a 1 µm Casimir cavity was carried out, but without a definitive result [49].

#### 2.3.2. The Extraction Process

^{22}transitions into and out from Casimir cavities per second was estimated to be approximately 1 kW. The power required to pump the gas through the cavities was estimated to be well below 1 W [8].

#### 2.3.3. Experimental Test of Radiant Emission Due to Gas Flow

_{2}, and Xe) were used to test both coated and uncoated membranes. Emitted radiation from filters with a 0.2 μm pore size is shown in Figure 8.

#### 2.3.4. Test of Frictional Heating as a Source for the Observed Radiation

#### 2.3.5. Test of the Joule-Thomson Effect as a Source for the Observed Radiation

#### 2.3.6. Turbulence as a Potential Source for the Observed Radiation

_{2}: 0.0166 cP, He: 0.0186 cP). Even if turbulence somehow did produce radiation from the membrane it could not explain the differences in signal levels for the different gases.

#### 2.3.7. Absorption/Adsorption as a Potential Source for the Observed Radiation

^{2}, 18 cm

^{2}and 12.6 cm

^{2}, respectively. Signal from these different filters measured for a pressure of ~5 torr did not vary with surface area. Therefore, the absorption/adsorption model may be ruled out as a possible explanation for the observed radiation.

#### 2.3.8. Expected Radiation Power

#### 2.3.9. Deviations from Expected Results

- The measured power is much lower than predicted, as described in the previous section. Some if not all this deviation can be attributed to inconsistent sizes and shapes of the nanopores.
- Another unexpected result is that the uncoated polycarbonate membranes produced much more radiation than the gold-coated devices. It is expected that the metal-walled Casimir cavities are more effective than the dielectric-walled cavities in suppressing interior modes, although the latter does produce the Casimir effect [29] that are only slightly smaller [54]. A likely reason that more radiation was observed from the polycarbonate is that the emitted power heated the cavity walls and the emissivity of the polycarbonate walls and membrane is much greater than that of the gold.
- We expected to see the greatest emission from the xenon atoms. Their outer orbital frequency corresponds to a wavelength (0.1 µm) that is suppressed in the 0.2 µm cavities (suppressed wavelength is ½ the cavity spacing). That suppressed wavelength is farthest from the wavelength corresponding to the helium orbital (0.05 µm). The opposite was observed. We do not know the reason for this, but it may have to do with more total energy being available from the helium atoms.

#### 2.3.10. Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

#### 2.3.11. Future Work to Investigate Gas Flow through Casimir Cavities

## 3. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Illustration of detailed balance. In this three-state system each arrow represents one unit of energy flux. The system in (

**a**) is in steady state, such that the total flux into each state equals the total flux out of it; In system (

**b**) not only does the steady-state condition apply, but the more restrictive detailed balance also applies, in which the flux between each pair of states is balanced.

**Figure 2.**Diode energy band diagram. Shown are electron transitions between the conduction and valence bands in the p-type region, corresponding to generation rate g, and recombination rate r. Also shown are electron transitions between n-type and p-type conduction band states, corresponding to excitation rate e, and drift rate d. This diagram is used in the text to illustrate photovoltaic carrier collection, rectification of thermal fluctuations, and also rectification of zero-point energy fluctuations as proposed by Valone [9].

**Figure 3.**Mead and Nachamkin’s invention [4] for producing a beat frequency from zero-point field radiation, and collecting, and rectifying it. The non-identical microscopic resonant spheres interact with ambient zero-point fields to produce radiation at a beat frequency. This radiation is absorbed in the loop antenna and rectified in the circuit.

**Figure 4.**Slinky-like coiled Casimir cavity, as conceptualized by Forward [2]. He used this device concept to demonstrate how one might convert the vacuum fluctuation potential energy from Casimir attraction to electrical energy. As the plates approach each other the repulsion of positive like-charges results in a current that charges up an external power supply.

**Figure 5.**Casimir cavity engine for the cyclic extraction of vacuum energy, similar to system proposed by Pinto [6]. In step (

**a**) the Casimir plates move together in response to Casimir attraction, producing energy that is extracted; In step (

**b**) the lower plate is altered to reduce its reflectivity and hence reduce the Casimir attraction; In step (

**c**) the plates are pulled apart, using less energy than that which was obtained in step (

**a**), and then the cycle is repeated.

**Figure 6.**System to pump energy continuously from the vacuum, as proposed by Haisch and Moddel [8]. As gas enters the Casimir cavity the electron orbitals of the gas atoms spin down in energy, emitting Larmour radiation, shown as small arrows pointing outwards. The radiant energy is absorbed and extracted. When the atoms exit the Casimir cavity, the atomic orbitals are recharged to their initial level by the ambient zero-point field, shown by the inward pointing small arrows. The figure is reprinted from Ref. [49].

**Figure 7.**SEM images of coated Nanopore polycarbonate membrane shown at two magnifications. In (

**a**) the white line corresponds to a length of 2 μm, and in (

**b**) to 0.1 μm. The figure is reprinted from Ref. [49].

**Figure 8.**Measured radiation emitted using N

_{2}, Ar, Xe and He gasses flowing through uncoated and gold coated polycarbonate filters having 0.2 μm pore size [49].

**Figure 9.**Effect of diameter on radiated power, as measured for He gas flowing through uncoated polycarbonate filters of 0.1 (blue diamonds), 0.2 (red squares), and 0.4 µm (greed triangles) pore diameter sizes.

**Figure 12.**Test of Joule–Thomson effect. Emitted radiation was measured for N

_{2}, Ar, Xe and He gasses flowing through a Mylar film having a 3 mm diameter hole. The phase of the lock-in signal indicated a cooling effect.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Moddel, G.; Dmitriyeva, O.
Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods. *Atoms* **2019**, *7*, 51.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020051

**AMA Style**

Moddel G, Dmitriyeva O.
Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods. *Atoms*. 2019; 7(2):51.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020051

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Moddel, Garret, and Olga Dmitriyeva.
2019. "Extraction of Zero-Point Energy from the Vacuum: Assessment of Stochastic Electrodynamics-Based Approach as Compared to Other Methods" *Atoms* 7, no. 2: 51.
https://doi.org/10.3390/atoms7020051