# Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Scientific Method

#### 1.2. Cosmology as an Experimental Science

#### 1.3. Physical Laws and Constants

#### 1.4. What Is the Multiverse?

## 2. Some History and Remarks on Varying Constants

## 3. Theories Incorporating Varying Constants

#### 3.1. Formulations

#### 3.1.1. Varying Gravitational Constant G

#### 3.1.2. Varying Fine Structure Constant $\alpha $ or the Electric Charge e

#### 3.1.3. Varying Speed of Light c

#### 3.2. Bounds on Variability of Fundamental Constants

#### 3.2.1. Varying G

#### 3.2.2. Varying $\alpha $

#### 3.2.3. Varying c

#### 3.3. Varying Constants as the Path to the Multiverse

## 4. Varying Constants and Anthropic Principles

#### 4.1. Coincidences

#### 4.2. Anthropic Principles (AP)

#### 4.2.1. Weak Anthropic Principle (WAP)

#### 4.2.2. Strong Anthropic Principle (SAP)

- Interpretation A says that “there exists only one possible Universe designed with the goal of generating and sustaining observers” [62]. In fact, it is very teleological, and this is why it sometimes is also called “An Intelligent Project” interpretation.
- Interpretation C says that “the whole ensemble of other and different universes is necessary for the existence of our Universe” [62]. The best-known, though most controversial version of this interpretation is the many-worlds theory of Everett [71,72] having recently some strong support from superstring theory [73].

#### 4.2.3. Final Anthropic Principle (FAP)

#### 4.2.4. Minimalistic Anthropic Principle (MAP)

#### 4.2.5. Going Beyond

## 5. The Multiverse and Its Testability

#### 5.1. Multiverse Hierarchy

- Level I obeys the pieces of our universe which are outside the cosmic horizon (behind our reach due to finite speed of information transmission by the speed of light), it presumably allows the same laws of physics, though different initial conditions.
- Level II are the other bubbles (universes) created during the process of eternal cosmic inflation which allows the same laws of physics but the different values of physical constants and different dimensionality of space. Our universe (set of constants) is likely as one of the many options.
- Level III is what is essentially the many-wolds of quantum physics proposed by Everett. It is the same as the level II but with some quantum curiosities such as superpositions of “alive” and “dead” cats, etc. The main issue is that there is no collapse of the total wave function of the Universe so that the decoherence (appearance of a classical world) happens only for a branching piece of the whole multiverse.
- Level IV is very extreme since it contains “any mathematical structure which is realised somewhere in the multiverse and it is fully materialisable”. Within this multiverse, one can have different physical constants, different laws of physics, dimensionality, etc. Since on this level we can make an equality between “mathematical existence” and “physical existence”, then we can answer the famous Wheeler and Hawking question: “why these equations (laws of physics), and not others?

#### 5.2. Multiverse and Our Vision of Life

#### 5.3. Falsifying the Multiverse

#### 5.4. How Many Universes?

#### 5.5. Falsifying due to Quantum Entanglement

#### 5.6. Redundant or Necessary?

## 6. Afterword

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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1. | A famous example of a quantity which is frame-dependent in general relativity is the gravitational energy represented by a pseudotensor [59]. |

**Figure 1.**Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube, or the cube of the physical theories [11]. Three orthonormal axes are marked by $1/c$, h and G. The vertex $(0,0,0)$ corresponds to non-relativistic mechanics; ($c,0,,0$) to special relativity; ($0,h,0$) to non relativistic quantum mechanics; ($c,,h,0$) to quantum field theory; ($c,0,G$) to general relativity, ($c,h,G$) to relativistic quantum gravity.

**Figure 2.**Fine-tuning of the parameters $\alpha $ and ${\alpha}_{s}$. Life-permitting parameter zone of these constants is marked in red [65].

Inhabitable | Uninhabitable | |
---|---|---|

our life | I, OUL | UI, OUL |

other life | I, OTL | UI, OTL |

Inhabitable | Uninhabitable | |
---|---|---|

our set of laws | I, OUS | UI, OUS |

other set of laws | I, OTS | UI, OTS |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Da̧browski, M.P.
Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability. *Universe* **2019**, *5*, 172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070172

**AMA Style**

Da̧browski MP.
Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability. *Universe*. 2019; 5(7):172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070172

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Da̧browski, Mariusz P.
2019. "Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability" *Universe* 5, no. 7: 172.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070172