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Multiverse Predictions for Habitability: Number of Potentially Habitable Planets
Open AccessArticle

Multiverse Predictions for Habitability: Fraction of Planets that Develop Life

1
Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
2
Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Universe 2019, 5(7), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070171
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multiverse)
In a multiverse context, determining the probability of being in our particular universe depends on estimating its overall habitability compared to other universes with different values of the fundamental constants. One of the most important factors in determining this is the fraction of planets that actually develop life, and how this depends on planetary conditions. Many proposed possibilities for this are incompatible with the multiverse: if the emergence of life depends on the lifetime of its host star, the size of the habitable planet, or the amount of material processed, the chances of being in our universe would be very low. If the emergence of life depends on the entropy absorbed by the planet, however, our position in this universe is very natural. Several proposed models for the subsequent development of life, including the hard step model and several planetary oxygenation models, are also shown to be incompatible with the multiverse. If any of these are observed to play a large role in determining the distribution of life throughout our universe, the multiverse hypothesis will be ruled out to high significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiverse; habitability; life multiverse; habitability; life
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Sandora, M. Multiverse Predictions for Habitability: Fraction of Planets that Develop Life. Universe 2019, 5, 171.

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