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Open AccessArticle

Magnification Cross Sections for the Elliptic Umbilic Caustic Surface

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Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610, USA
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Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019, USA
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Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Duke University, Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708-0320, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2019, 5(7), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070161
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Lensing and Optical Geometry: A Centennial Perspective)
In gravitational lensing, magnification cross sections characterize the probability that a light source will have magnification greater than some fixed value, which is useful in a variety of applications. The (area) cross section is known to scale as μ 2 for fold caustics and μ 2.5 for cusp caustics. We aim to extend the results to higher-order caustic singularities, focusing on the elliptic umbilic, which can be manifested in lensing systems with two or three galaxies. The elliptic umbilic has a caustic surface, and we show that the volume cross section scales as μ 2.5 in the two-image region and μ 2 in the four-image region, where μ is the total unsigned magnification. In both cases our results are supported both numerically and analytically. View Full-Text
Keywords: strong gravitational lensing; magnification cross sections; caustics strong gravitational lensing; magnification cross sections; caustics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aazami, A.B.; Keeton, C.R.; Petters, A.O. Magnification Cross Sections for the Elliptic Umbilic Caustic Surface. Universe 2019, 5, 161.

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