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Detecting the Hadron-Quark Phase Transition with Gravitational Waves

1
Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Straße, 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Straße, 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3
Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44243, USA
4
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Universe 2019, 5(6), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5060156
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract

The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marks the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. By exploiting the extracted tidal deformations of the two neutron stars from the late inspiral phase of GW170817, it is now possible to constrain several global properties of the equation of state of neutron star matter. However, the most interesting part of the high density and temperature regime of the equation of state is solely imprinted in the post-merger gravitational wave emission from the remnant hypermassive/supramassive neutron star. This regime was not observed in GW170817, but will possibly be detected in forthcoming events within the current observing run of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration. Numerous numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries have been performed during the last decades, and the emitted gravitational wave profiles and the interior structure of the generated remnants have been analysed in detail. The consequences of a potential appearance of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior region of the produced hypermassive neutron star and the evolution of its underlying matter in the phase diagram of quantum cromo dynamics will be in the focus of this article. It will be shown that the different density/temperature regions of the equation of state can be severely constrained by a measurement of the spectral properties of the emitted post-merger gravitational wave signal from a future binary compact star merger event. View Full-Text
Keywords: equation of state; hadron-quark phase transition; binary neutron star merger; gravitational wave equation of state; hadron-quark phase transition; binary neutron star merger; gravitational wave
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Hanauske, M.; Bovard, L.; Most, E.; Papenfort, J.; Steinheimer, J.; Motornenko, A.; Vovchenko, V.; Dexheimer, V.; Schramm, S.; Stöcker, H. Detecting the Hadron-Quark Phase Transition with Gravitational Waves. Universe 2019, 5, 156.

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