# Tests of Lorentz Symmetry in the Gravitational Sector

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. The Standard-Model Extension in the Gravitational Sector

## 3. Postfit Analysis Versus Full Modeling

## 4. Data Analysis

#### 4.1. Atomic Gravimetry

#### 4.2. Very Long Baseline Interferometry

#### 4.3. Lunar Laser Ranging

#### 4.4. Planetary Ephemerides

#### 4.5. Gravity Probe B

#### 4.6. Binary Pulsars

#### 4.7. Čerenkov Radiation

#### 4.8. Summary and Combined Analysis

## 5. The future

#### 5.1. The Gaia Mission

#### 5.2. Analysis of Cassini Conjunction Data

#### 5.3. Satellite Laser Ranging (LAGEOS/LARES)

#### 5.4. Gravity-Matter Coefficients and Breaking of the Einstein Equivalence Principle

## 6. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CMB | Cosmic Microwave Background |

ELPN | Éphéméride Lunaire Parisienne Numérique |

GPB | Gravity Probe B |

GR | General Relativity |

GRAIL | Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory |

INPOP | Intégrateur Numérique Planétaire de l’Observatoire de Paris |

IVS | International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry |

LARASE | LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment |

LLR | Lunar Laser Ranging |

LIV | Lorentz Invariance Violation |

mas | milliarcsecond |

Mpc | Megaparsec |

NFT | Numerical Fourier Transform |

PPN | Parametrized Post-Newtonian |

SME | Standard-Model Extension |

SSO | Solar System Object |

TAI | International Atomic Time |

TDB | Barycentric Dynamical Time |

TT | Terrestrial Time |

UTC | Universal Time Coordinate |

VLBI | Very Long Baseline Interferometry |

yr | year |

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**Figure 1.**This figure represents the distribution of the orbital parameters for the Solar System Objects (SSOs) expected to be observed by the Gaia satellite. The red stars represent the innermost planets of the Solar System.

**Figure 2.**Doppler signature produced by ${\overline{s}}^{TT}=2\times {10}^{-5}$ on the 2-way Doppler link Earth-Cassini-Earth during the 2002 Solar conjunction.

Coefficient | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-3.1\pm 5.1$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.1\pm 5.4$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">1.4\pm 6.6$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">4.4\pm 11$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.2\pm 3.9$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-2.6\pm 4.4$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-0.3\pm 4.5$ | |||||

Correlation Coefficients | ||||||

1 | ||||||

0.05 | 1 | |||||

0.11 | −0.16 | 1 | ||||

−0.82 | 0.34 | −0.16 | 1 | |||

−0.38 | −0.86 | 0.10 | −0.01 | 1 | ||

−0.41 | 0.13 | −0.89 | 0.38 | 0.02 | 1 | |

−0.12 | −0.19 | −0.89 | 0.04 | 0.20 | 0.80 | 1 |

**Table 2.**Estimation of Standard-Model Extension (SME) coefficients from Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) postfit data analysis from [45]. No correlations coefficients have been derived in this analysis. The coefficients ${\overline{s}}^{ij}$ are projections of the ${\overline{s}}^{IJ}$ into the lunar orbital plane (see Equation (107) from [39]) while the linear combinations ${\overline{s}}_{{\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\oplus}c}$ and ${\overline{s}}_{{\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\oplus}s}$ are given by Equation (108) from [39].

Coefficient | |
---|---|

${\overline{s}}^{11}-{\overline{s}}^{22}$ | $(1.3\pm 0.9)\times {10}^{-10}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{12}$ | $(6.9\pm 4.5)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{01}$ | $(-0.8\pm 1.1)\times {10}^{-6\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{02}$ | $(-5.2\pm 4.8)\times {10}^{-7\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}}$ |

${\overline{s}}_{{\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\oplus}c}$ | $(0.2\pm 3.9)\times {10}^{-7\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}}$ |

${\overline{s}}_{{\mathsf{\Omega}}_{\oplus}s}$ | $(-1.3\pm 4.1)\times {10}^{-7\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}}$ |

**Table 3.**Estimation of SME coefficients from a full LLR data analysis from [46] and associated correlation coefficients.

Coefficient | Estimates | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-0.9\pm 1.0$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-5.7\pm 7.7$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-2.2\pm 5.9$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.6\pm 4.2$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{TY}+0.43\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">6.2\pm 7.9$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}-4.5\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">2.3\pm 4.5$ | ||||

Correlation Coefficients | |||||

1 | |||||

−0.06 | 1 | ||||

−0.04 | 0.29 | 1 | |||

0.58 | −0.12 | −0.16 | 1 | ||

0.16 | −0.01 | −0.09 | 0.25 | 1 | |

0.07 | −0.10 | −0.13 | −0.10 | 0.03 | 1 |

**Table 4.**Estimations of the SME coefficients from a postfit data analysis based on planetary ephemerides from [50]. The uncertainties correspond to the 68% Bayesian confidence levels of the marginal posterior probability distribution function. The associated correlation coefficients can be found in Table III from [50].

Coefficient | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $(-0.8\pm 2.0)\times {10}^{-10}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $(-0.8\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-10}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $(-0.3\pm 1.1)\times {10}^{-10}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $(-1.0\pm 3.5)\times {10}^{-11}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(5.5\pm 5.2)\times {10}^{-12}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $(-2.9\pm 8.3)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $(0.3\pm 1.4)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | ||||||

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $(-0.2\pm 5.0)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | ||||||

Correlation coefficients | |||||||

1 | |||||||

0.99 | 1 | ||||||

0.99 | 0.99 | 1 | |||||

0.98 | 0.98 | 0.99 | 1 | ||||

−0.32 | −0.24 | −0.26 | −0.26 | 1 | |||

0.99 | 0.98 | 0.98 | 0.98 | −0.32 | 1 | ||

0.62 | 0.67 | 0.62 | 0.59 | 0.36 | 0.60 | 1 | |

−0.83 | −0.86 | −0.83 | −0.81 | −0.14 | −0.82 | −0.95 | 1 |

**Table 5.**Estimations of the SME coefficients from a postfit data analysis based on Gravity Probe B (GPB) [52].

Coefficient | ||
---|---|---|

${\overline{s}}_{\mathrm{GPB}}^{\left(1\right)}$ | = ${\overline{s}}^{TT}+970\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ $+2895\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XY}-3235\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XZ}-11\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}240\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(0.7\pm 3.1)\times {10}^{-3}$ |

${\overline{s}}_{\mathrm{GPB}}^{\left(2\right)}$ | = ${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}+3.02\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XY}+0.32\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XZ}+1.05\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(-1.1\pm 3.8)\times {10}^{-7}$ |

**Table 6.**Estimation of SME coefficients from binary pulsars data analysis from [53,54]. No correlations coefficients have been derived in this analysis. These estimates should be considered as estimates on the strong field version of the SME coefficients that may include non perturbative strong field effects due to the gravitational binding energy.

Coefficient | |
---|---|

$\left(\right)$ | $<2.8\times {10}^{-4\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $(0.2\pm 9.9)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $(-0.05\pm 12.25)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $(0.05\pm 3.55)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $(0.0\pm 2.0)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(0.0\pm 3.3)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $(0.05\pm 5.25)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $(0.5\pm 8.0)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $(-0.05\pm 5.85)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

**Table 7.**Lower and upper limits on the SME coefficients decomposed in spherical harmonics derived from Čerenkov radiation [56].

Coefficient | Lower Bound | Upper Bound |
---|---|---|

${\overline{s}}_{00}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-3\times {10}^{-14}$ | |

${\overline{s}}_{10}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-1\times {10}^{-13}$ | $7\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Re ${\overline{s}}_{11}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-8\times {10}^{-14}$ | $8\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Im ${\overline{s}}_{11}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-7\times {10}^{-14}$ | $9\times {10}^{-14}$ |

${\overline{s}}_{20}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-7\times {10}^{-14}$ | $1\times {10}^{-13}$ |

Re ${\overline{s}}_{21}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-7\times {10}^{-14}$ | $7\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Im ${\overline{s}}_{21}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-5\times {10}^{-14}$ | $8\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Re ${\overline{s}}_{22}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-6\times {10}^{-14}$ | $8\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Im ${\overline{s}}_{22}^{\left(SH\right)}$ | $-7\times {10}^{-14}$ | $7\times {10}^{-14}$ |

Atomic Grav. [48] | LLR [46] | Planetary Eph. [50] | Pulsars [53,54] | Čerenkov rad. [56] | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lower Bound | Upper Bound | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{TT}$ | $<2.8\times {10}^{-4\phantom{1}}$ | $-6\times {10}^{-15}<$ | ||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">4.4\pm 11$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.6\pm 4.2$ | $(-0.8\pm 2.0)\times {10}^{-10}$ | $(0.2\pm 9.9)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $-9\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<1.2\times {10}^{-13}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $(-0.8\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-10}$ | $(-0.05\pm 12.25)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $-1.9\times {10}^{-13}<$ | $<1.3\times {10}^{-13}$ | ||

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.2\pm 3.9$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-5.7\pm 7.7$ | $(-0.3\pm 1.1)\times {10}^{-10}$ | $(0.05\pm 3.55)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $-3.9\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<6.2\times {10}^{-14}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-2.6\pm 4.4$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-2.2\pm 5.9$ | $(-1.0\pm 3.5)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $(0.0\pm 2.0)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $-5.4\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<5.4\times {10}^{-14}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-0.3\pm 4.5$ | $(5.5\pm 5.2)\times {10}^{-12}$ | $(0.0\pm 3.3)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $-3.9\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<6.2\times {10}^{-14}$ | |

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-3.1\pm 5.1$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">-0.9\pm 1.0$ | $(-2.9\pm 8.3)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | $(0.05\pm 5.25)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | $2.8\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<2.8\times {10}^{-14}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">0.1\pm 5.4$ | $(0.3\pm 1.4)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | $(0.5\pm 8.0)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | $3.1\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<2.4\times {10}^{-14}$ | |

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">1.4\pm 6.6$ | $(-0.2\pm 5.0)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | $(-0.05\pm 5.85)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | $1.7\times {10}^{-14}<$ | $<2.4\times {10}^{-14}$ | |

${\overline{s}}^{TY}+0.43\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">6.2\pm 7.9$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}-4.5\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">2.3\pm 4.5$ | |||||

VLBI [55] | GPB [52] | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{TT}$ | $(-5\pm 8)\times {10}^{-5}$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{TT}+970\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">{\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}+2895\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XY}-3235\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XZ}-11\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}240\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(0.7\pm 3.1)\times {10}^{-3}$ | |||||

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}+3.02\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XY}+0.32\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{XZ}+1.05\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(-1.1\pm 3.8)\times {10}^{-7}$ |

**Table 9.**Estimation of SME coefficients resulting from a fit combining results from: atomic gravimetry (see Table 1), VLBI (see Equation (13)), LLR (see Table 3), planetary ephemerides (see Table 4), Gravity Probe B (see Table 5). The correlation matrices from all these analyses have been used in the combined fit. The right column includes the pulsars results from Table 6 as well. The three estimates on ${\overline{s}}^{JJ}$ are obtained by using the traceless condition ${\overline{s}}^{TT}={\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}+{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$.

Coefficient | Without Pulsars | With Pulsars |
---|---|---|

${\overline{s}}^{TT}$ | $(-5.\pm 8.)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ | $(-4.6\pm 7.7)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $(-0.5\pm 1.9)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $(-0.5\pm 1.9)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $(1.6\pm 3.1)\times {10}^{-11}$ | $(0.8\pm 2.5)\times {10}^{-11}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $(-1.5\pm 6.8)\times {10}^{-12}$ | $(-1.6\pm 6.6)\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $(-1.0\pm 4.1)\times {10}^{-12}$ | $(-0.8\pm 3.9)\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $(2.6\pm 4.7)\times {10}^{-12}$ | $(1.1\pm 3.2)\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $(-0.1\pm 1.3)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ | $(-0.1\pm 1.3)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $(0.5\pm 1.1)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | $(0.4\pm 2.3)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $(-1.2\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ | $(-0.6\pm 5.5)\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}$ | $(-1.7\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ | $(-1.5\pm 2.6)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $(-1.7\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ | $(-1.5\pm 2.6)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $(-1.7\pm 2.7)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ | $(-1.5\pm 2.6)\times {10}^{-5\phantom{1}}$ |

**Table 10.**Sensitivity of the SME coefficients to the measurement of the light deflection by several space missions or proposals (these estimates are based on Table I from [82]).

Mission | ${\overline{\mathit{s}}}^{\mathit{TT}}$ | ${\overline{\mathit{s}}}^{\mathit{TJ}}$ | ${\overline{\mathit{s}}}^{\mathit{IJ}}$ |
---|---|---|---|

Gaia [196] | ${10}^{-6}$ | ${10}^{-6}$ | ${10}^{-5}$ |

AGP [203] | ${10}^{-7}$ | ${10}^{-7}$ | ${10}^{-6}$ |

LATOR [204] | ${10}^{-8}$ | ${10}^{-8}$ | ${10}^{-7}$ |

**Table 11.**Sensitivity of the SME coefficients to the observations of 360,000 asteroids by the Gaia satellite during a period of 5 years.

SME Coefficients | Sensitivity ($\mathbf{1}\mathbf{-}\mathit{\sigma}$) |
---|---|

${\overline{s}}^{XX}-{\overline{s}}^{YY}$ | $3.7\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XX}+{\overline{s}}^{YY}-2{\overline{s}}^{ZZ}$ | $6.4\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XY}$ | $1.6\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{XZ}$ | $9.2\times {10}^{-13}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{YZ}$ | $1.7\times {10}^{-12}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TX}$ | $5.6\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TY}$ | $8.8\times {10}^{-9\phantom{1}}$ |

${\overline{s}}^{TZ}$ | $1.6\times {10}^{-8\phantom{1}}$ |

© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hees, A.; Bailey, Q.G.; Bourgoin, A.; Pihan-Le Bars, H.; Guerlin, C.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
Tests of Lorentz Symmetry in the Gravitational Sector. *Universe* **2016**, *2*, 30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe2040030

**AMA Style**

Hees A, Bailey QG, Bourgoin A, Pihan-Le Bars H, Guerlin C, Le Poncin-Lafitte C.
Tests of Lorentz Symmetry in the Gravitational Sector. *Universe*. 2016; 2(4):30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe2040030

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hees, Aurélien, Quentin G. Bailey, Adrien Bourgoin, Hélène Pihan-Le Bars, Christine Guerlin, and Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte.
2016. "Tests of Lorentz Symmetry in the Gravitational Sector" *Universe* 2, no. 4: 30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/universe2040030