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Open AccessArticle

The Ruminal Microbiome and Metabolome Alterations Associated with Diet-Induced Milk Fat Depression in Dairy Cows

by Hongbo Zeng 1,2,3,4,5, Changzheng Guo 1,2,3,4,5, Daming Sun 1,2,3,4,5, Hossam-eldin Seddik 1,2,3,4,5 and Shengyong Mao 1,2,3,4,5,*
1
Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
3
National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
4
National Center for International Research on Animal Gut Nutrition, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
5
Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(7), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9070154
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
Milk fat depression (MFD) syndrome represents a significant drawback to the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to unravel the ruminal metabolome-microbiome interaction in response to diet-induced MFD in dairy cows. Twelve healthy second parity Holstein dairy cows (days in milk (DIM) = 119 ± 14) were randomly assigned into control (CON, n = 6) group and treatment (TR, n = 6) group. Cows in TR group received a high-starch total mixed ration (TMR) designed to induce an MFD syndrome. Decreased milk fat yield and concentration in TR cows displayed the successful development of MFD syndrome. TR diet increased the relative abundance of Prevotella and decreased the relative abundance of unclassified Lachnospiraceae, Oribacterium, unclassified Veillonellaceae and Pseudobutyrivibrio in ruminal fluid. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the ruminal fluid content of glucose, amino acids and amines were significantly increased in TR cows compared with CON cows. Correlation analysis revealed that the concentration of amines and amino acids were highly correlated with the abundance of Oribacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio, RC9_gut_group, unclassified BS11_gut_group and Selenomonas. In general, these findings revealed that TR diet reduced the rumination time and altered rumen fermentation type, which led to changes in the composition of ruminal microbiota and metabolites, and caused MFD. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk fat depression; metabolome; microbiome; rumen milk fat depression; metabolome; microbiome; rumen
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Zeng, H.; Guo, C.; Sun, D.; Seddik, H.-E.; Mao, S. The Ruminal Microbiome and Metabolome Alterations Associated with Diet-Induced Milk Fat Depression in Dairy Cows. Metabolites 2019, 9, 154.

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