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NMR-Based Tissular and Developmental Metabolomics of Tomato Fruit

1
UMR1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, INRA, University Bordeaux, Centre INRA de Nouvelle Aquitaine-Bordeaux, 71 av Edouard Bourlaux, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2
Plateforme Métabolome du Centre de Génomique Fonctionnelle Bordeaux, MetaboHUB, IBVM, Centre INRA de Nouvelle Aquitaine-Bordeaux, 71 av Edouard Bourlaux, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address, Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.
Metabolites 2019, 9(5), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9050093
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
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Abstract

Fruit is a complex organ containing seeds and several interconnected tissues with dedicated roles. However, most biochemical or molecular studies about fleshy fruit development concern the entire fruit, the fruit without seeds, or pericarp only. We studied tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at four stages of development (12, 20, 35, and 45 days post-anthesis). We separated the seeds and the other tissues, exocarp, mesocarp, columella with placenta and locular tissue, and analyzed them individually using proton NMR metabolomic profiling for the quantification of major polar metabolites, enzymatic analysis of starch, and LC-DAD analysis of isoprenoids. Pericarp tissue represented about half of the entire fruit mass only. The composition of each fruit tissue changed during fruit development. An ANOVA-PCA highlighted common, and specific metabolite trends between tissues e.g., higher contents of chlorogenate in locular tissue and of starch in columella. Euclidian distances based on compositional data showed proximities within and between tissues. Several metabolic regulations differed between tissues as revealed by the comparison of metabolite networks based on correlations between compounds. This work stressed the role of specific tissues less studied than pericarp but that impact fruit organoleptic quality including its shape and taste, and fruit processing quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit development; fruit tissues; seeds; tomato; NMR metabolomic profiling; isoprenoids fruit development; fruit tissues; seeds; tomato; NMR metabolomic profiling; isoprenoids
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Lemaire-Chamley, M.; Mounet, F.; Deborde, C.; Maucourt, M.; Jacob, D.; Moing, A. NMR-Based Tissular and Developmental Metabolomics of Tomato Fruit. Metabolites 2019, 9, 93.

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