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Delta-Tocotrienol Modulates Glutamine Dependence by Inhibiting ASCT2 and LAT1 Transporters in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells: A Metabolomic Approach

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Metabolites 2019, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9030050
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolomics 2018)
The growth and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) primarily depends on glutamine. Both glutamine and essential amino acids (EAAs) have been reported to upregulate mTOR in NSCLC, which is a bioenergetics sensor involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell survival, and protein synthesis. Seen as novel concepts in cancer development, ASCT2 and LAT transporters allow glutamine and EAAs to enter proliferating tumors as well as send a regulatory signal to mTOR. Blocking or downregulating these glutamine transporters in order to inhibit glutamine uptake would be an excellent therapeutic target for treatment of NSCLC. This study aimed to validate the metabolic dysregulation of glutamine and its derivatives in NSCLC using cellular 1H-NMR metabolomic approach while exploring the mechanism of delta-tocotrienol (δT) on glutamine transporters, and mTOR pathway. Cellular metabolomics analysis showed significant inhibition in the uptake of glutamine, its derivatives glutamate and glutathione, and some EAAs in both cell lines with δT treatment. Inhibition of glutamine transporters (ASCT2 and LAT1) and mTOR pathway proteins (P-mTOR and p-4EBP1) was evident in Western blot analysis in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that δT inhibits glutamine transporters, thus inhibiting glutamine uptake into proliferating cells, which results in the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis via downregulation of the mTOR pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; mTOR; vitamin E; SLC1A5; tocotrienols; apoptosis; cell growth; cell transporters; essential amino acids; ASCT2; glutaminolysis; alanine; glutathione; glutamate; lung; bio actives; nutraceuticals cancer; mTOR; vitamin E; SLC1A5; tocotrienols; apoptosis; cell growth; cell transporters; essential amino acids; ASCT2; glutaminolysis; alanine; glutathione; glutamate; lung; bio actives; nutraceuticals
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Rajasinghe, L.D.; Hutchings, M.; Gupta, S.V. Delta-Tocotrienol Modulates Glutamine Dependence by Inhibiting ASCT2 and LAT1 Transporters in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells: A Metabolomic Approach. Metabolites 2019, 9, 50.

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