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Metabolites 2019, 9(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9020021

NMR Metabolomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle, Heart, and Liver of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Experimentally Exposed to Crude Oil and/or Corexit

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
2
Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Environmental Medicine Consortium, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
4
Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, North Carolina State University, Morehead City, NC 28557, USA
5
Sea Turtle Project, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA
6
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA
7
Department of Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-based Metabolomics and Its Applications Volume 2)
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Abstract

We used nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) to evaluate the metabolic impacts of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a dispersant, and a crude oil Corexit 5900A mixture exposure on skeletal muscle, heart, and liver physiology of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Tissue samples were obtained from 22 seven-day-old hatchlings after a four day cutaneous exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a combination of crude oil and Corexit 9500A, or a seawater control. We identified 38 metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the liver, and 30 metabolites in both the skeletal and heart muscle aqueous extracts, including organic acids/osmolytes, energy compounds, amino acids, ketone bodies, nucleosides, and nucleotides. Skeletal muscle lactate, creatines, and taurine concentrations were significantly lower in hatchlings exposed to crude oil than in control hatchlings. Lactate, taurine, and cholines appeared to be the basis of some variation in hatchling heart samples, and liver inosine, uracil, and uridine appeared to be influenced by Corexit and crude oil exposure. Observed decreases in concentrations of lactate and creatines may reflect energy depletion in skeletal muscle of oil-exposed animals, while decreased taurine concentrations in these animals may reflect higher oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caretta caretta; Corexit 9500A; crude oil; heart; liver; metabolomics; NMR; sea turtle; skeletal muscle Caretta caretta; Corexit 9500A; crude oil; heart; liver; metabolomics; NMR; sea turtle; skeletal muscle
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Bembenek-Bailey, S.A.; Niemuth, J.N.; McClellan-Green, P.D.; Godfrey, M.H.; Harms, C.A.; Gracz, H.; Stoskopf, M.K. NMR Metabolomic Analysis of Skeletal Muscle, Heart, and Liver of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Experimentally Exposed to Crude Oil and/or Corexit. Metabolites 2019, 9, 21.

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