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Open AccessArticle

Microfluidic Irreversible Electroporation—A Versatile Tool to Extract Intracellular Contents of Bacteria and Yeast

1
Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1, RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
iAMB Institute of Applied Microbiology, ABBt-Aachen Biology and Biotechnology Department, RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3
Current address: Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
4
Current address: Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, 4072 Brisbane, QLD, Australia
5
Bioeconomy Science Center BioSC, c/o Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100211
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
Exploring the dynamic behavior of cellular metabolism requires a standard laboratory method that guarantees rapid sampling and extraction of the cellular content. We propose a versatile sampling technique applicable to cells with different cell wall and cell membrane properties. The technique is based on irreversible electroporation with simultaneous quenching and extraction by using a microfluidic device. By application of electric pulses in the millisecond range, permanent lethal pores are formed in the cell membrane of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, facilitating the release of the cellular contents; here demonstrated by the measurement of glucose-6-phosphate and the activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The successful application of this device was demonstrated by pulsed electric field treatment in a flow-through configuration of the microfluidic chip in combination with sampling, inactivation, and extraction of the intracellular content in a few seconds. Minimum electric field strengths of 10 kV/cm for E. coli and 7.5 kV/cm for yeast S. cerevisiae were required for successful cell lysis. The results are discussed in the context of applications in industrial biotechnology, where metabolomics analyses are important. View Full-Text
Keywords: irreversible electroporation; microfluidics; microelectrodes; pulsed electric field electroporation; intracellular metabolites; enzymes; quenching; E. coli; S. cerevisiae irreversible electroporation; microfluidics; microelectrodes; pulsed electric field electroporation; intracellular metabolites; enzymes; quenching; E. coli; S. cerevisiae
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Rockenbach, A.; Sudarsan, S.; Berens, J.; Kosubek, M.; Lazar, J.; Demling, P.; Hanke, R.; Mennicken, P.; Ebert, B.E.; Blank, L.M.; Schnakenberg, U. Microfluidic Irreversible Electroporation—A Versatile Tool to Extract Intracellular Contents of Bacteria and Yeast. Metabolites 2019, 9, 211.

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