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Open AccessArticle

Plasma Metabolic Signature and Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Individuals on Long-Term Successful Antiretroviral Therapy

1
Department of HIV/AIDS, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, ICMR, Chennai 600031, India
2
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Huddinge, Sweden
3
Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai 600047, India
4
Department of Medicine, Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(10), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9100210
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunometabolism 2019)
Targeted metabolomics studies reported metabolic abnormalities in both treated and untreated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLHIV). The present study aimed to understand the plasma metabolomic changes and predicted the risk of accelerated aging in PLHIV on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a case-control study setting and its association with the plasma proteomics biomarkers of inflammation and neurological defects. Plasma samples were obtained from PLHIV on successful long-term ART for more than five years (n = 22) and matched HIV-negative healthy individuals (n = 22, HC herein). Untargeted metabolite profiling was carried out using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS). Plasma proteomics profiling was performed using proximity extension assay targeting 184 plasma proteins. A total of 250 metabolites differed significantly (p < 0.05, q < 0.1) between PLHIV and HC. Plasma levels of several essential amino acids except for histidine, branched-chain amino acids, and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan) were significantly lower in PLHIV compared to HC. Machine-learning prediction of metabolite changes indicated a higher risk of inflammatory and neurological diseases in PLHIV. Metabolic abnormalities were observed in amino-acid levels, energetics, and phospholipids and complex lipids, which may reflect known differences in lipoprotein levels in PLHIV that can resemble metabolic syndrome (MetS). View Full-Text
Keywords: untargeted metabolomics; HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); targeted proteomics; antiretroviral therapy untargeted metabolomics; HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); targeted proteomics; antiretroviral therapy
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Babu, H.; Sperk, M.; Ambikan, A.T.; Rachel, G.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Tripathy, S.P.; Nowak, P.; Hanna, L.E.; Neogi, U. Plasma Metabolic Signature and Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Individuals on Long-Term Successful Antiretroviral Therapy. Metabolites 2019, 9, 210.

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