Next Article in Journal
Random Forest Analysis of Untargeted Metabolomics Data Suggests Increased Use of Omega Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway in Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae Fed a Medium Chain Fatty Acid Rich High-Fat Diet
Previous Article in Journal
Annotating Nontargeted LC-HRMS/MS Data with Two Complementary Tandem Mass Spectral Libraries
Previous Article in Special Issue
Metabolomic Profiling of Bile Acids in an Experimental Model of Prodromal Parkinson’s Disease
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Metabolites 2019, 9(1), 4;

Metabolomics and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine (WWIEM), Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
Institute for Global Food Security (IGFS), Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 6AG, UK
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen 6525 EX, The Netherlands
Membership of the Eye-Risk Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgment.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2023 KB, uploaded 4 January 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to irreversible visual loss, therefore, early intervention is desirable, but due to its multifactorial nature, diagnosis of early disease might be challenging. Identification of early markers for disease development and progression is key for disease diagnosis. Suitable biomarkers can potentially provide opportunities for clinical intervention at a stage of the disease when irreversible changes are yet to take place. One of the most metabolically active tissues in the human body is the retina, making the use of hypothesis-free techniques, like metabolomics, to measure molecular changes in AMD appealing. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that metabolic dysfunction has an important role in the development and progression of AMD. Therefore, metabolomics appears to be an appropriate platform to investigate disease-associated biomarkers. In this review, we explored what is known about metabolic changes in the retina, in conjunction with the emerging literature in AMD metabolomics research. Methods for metabolic biomarker identification in the eye have also been discussed, including the use of tears, vitreous, and aqueous humor, as well as imaging methods, like fluorescence lifetime imaging, that could be translated into a clinical diagnostic tool with molecular level resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; metabolomics; metabolism; biomarkers; drusen; retinal pigment epithelium age-related macular degeneration; metabolomics; metabolism; biomarkers; drusen; retinal pigment epithelium

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, C.N.; Green, B.D.; Thompson, R.B.; Den Hollander, A.I.; Lengyel, I.; On behalf of the EYE-RISK consortium. Metabolomics and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Metabolites 2019, 9, 4.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top