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Metabolites 2019, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9010002

Compositional Differences and Similarities between Typical Chinese Baijiu and Western Liquor as Revealed by Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

1
,
1
,
2,* and 1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2
University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolite Markers of Phytochemicals)
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Abstract

Distilled liquors are important products, both culturally and economically. Chemically, as a complex mixture, distilled liquor comprises various chemical compounds in addition to ethanol. However, the chemical components of distilled liquors are still insufficiently understood and compositional differences and similarities of distilled liquors from different cultures have never been compared. For the first time, both volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and non-VOCs in distilled liquors were profiled using mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. A total of 879 VOCs and 268 non-VOCs were detected in 24 distilled liquors including six typical Chinese baijiu and 18 typical Western liquors. Principal component analysis and a correlation network revealed important insights into the compositional differences and similarities of the distilled liquors that were assessed. Ethyl esters, a few benzene derivatives, and alcohols were shared by most distilled liquors assessed, suggesting their important contribution to the common flavor and mouthfeel of distilled liquors. Sugars and esters formed by fatty alcohol differ significantly between the assessed Chinese baijiu and Western liquors, and are potential marker compounds that could be used for their discrimination. Factors contributing to the differences in chemical composition are proposed. Our results improve our understanding of the chemical components of distilled liquors, which may contribute to more rigorous quality control of alcoholic beverages. View Full-Text
Keywords: distilled liquor; metabolomics; volatile compounds; HS-SPME-GC-TOFMS; non-volatile compounds; GC-TOFMS distilled liquor; metabolomics; volatile compounds; HS-SPME-GC-TOFMS; non-volatile compounds; GC-TOFMS
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Fang, C.; Du, H.; Jia, W.; Xu, Y. Compositional Differences and Similarities between Typical Chinese Baijiu and Western Liquor as Revealed by Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics. Metabolites 2019, 9, 2.

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