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Metabolites 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo8020034

Investigation of Daphnia magna Sub-Lethal Exposure to Organophosphate Esters in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Matter Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6, Canada
2
Environmental NMR Centre and Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Toxicology)
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Abstract

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are frequently detected in aquatic environments. Hydrophobic OPEs with high octanol-water partition coefficients (Log KOW) will likely sorb to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and consequently alter OPE bioavailability and sub-lethal toxicity. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to evaluate how DOM (5 mg organic carbon/L) alters the metabolic response of Daphnia magna exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of three individual OPEs with varying hydrophobicity. D. magna exposed to the hydrophilic contaminant (Log KOW = 1.43) tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) did not have substantial metabolic changes and DOM did not alter the metabolic response. There were significant increases in amino acids and a decrease in glucose from exposure to the hydrophobic contaminant (Log KOW = 3.65) tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) which DOM did not mitigate, likely due to the high sub-lethal toxicity of TBOEP. Exposure to DOM and the hydrophobic contaminant (Log KOW = 4.76) triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) resulted in a unique metabolic response which was unlike TPhP only exposure, perhaps because DOM may be an additional stressor with TPhP exposure. Therefore, Log KOW values may not always predict how sub-lethal contaminant toxicity will change with DOM and there should be more consideration to incorporate DOM in sub-lethal ecotoxicology testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate; triphenyl phosphate; organic contaminants; water flea tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate; triphenyl phosphate; organic contaminants; water flea
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Kovacevic, V.; Simpson, A.J.; Simpson, M.J. Investigation of Daphnia magna Sub-Lethal Exposure to Organophosphate Esters in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Matter Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics. Metabolites 2018, 8, 34.

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