Next Article in Journal
Breast Tissue Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Anti-Hepatitis C Virus and Antiproliferative Agent Alters Metabolic Networks in HepG2 and Hep3B Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Proceedings of 3rd Australian Lipid Meeting
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2017, 7(2), 24;

Seasonal Variation of Triacylglycerol Profile of Bovine Milk

Biosciences Research, Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia
School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Simon H. J. Brown and Thusitha W. Rupasinghe
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 3rd Australian Lipid Meeting)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2655 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  


Milk contains 3–6% of fat, of which the dominant component is triacylglycerol (TAG). Over 100 TAG groups can be readily detected in any non-enriched milk sample by LC-MS; most TAG groups contain several isomers (TAG molecules with different fatty acid composition), which cannot be fully resolved chromatographically by any single stationary phase. TAG profile of mature milk from 19 cows was surveyed in this study for eight consecutive months using RP-LC-Orbitrap MS. It was found that TAG profile of milk was not constant throughout the milking season and the seasonal pattern varied with TAG groups. The overall unsaturation level of TAG was stable from October 2013 to January 2014, decreased in February/March 2014 and then increased from April and peaked in May 2014. In addition to the seasonal fluctuation in TAG profile, the proportion of different isomeric species within a TAG group also changed substantially across seasons. However, the proportion of different positional isomers within a given TAG group does not seem to vary during the milking season. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the seasonal change of milk lipid at the TAG group and isomer level. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; triacylglycerol profile; seasonal variation; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry milk; triacylglycerol profile; seasonal variation; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Wang, J.; Cocks, B.G.; Rochfort, S. Seasonal Variation of Triacylglycerol Profile of Bovine Milk. Metabolites 2017, 7, 24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top