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Article

Protective Effects of Bee Pollen on Multiple Propionic Acid-Induced Biochemical Autistic Features in a Rat Model

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Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
2
Central Research Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
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Biochemistry Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka and Igor Loniewski
Metabolites 2022, 12(7), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070571
Received: 6 June 2022 / Revised: 16 June 2022 / Accepted: 19 June 2022 / Published: 21 June 2022
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that clinically presented as impaired social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and weakened communication. The use of bee pollen as a supplement rich in amino acids amino acids, vitamins, lipids, and countless bioactive substances may lead to the relief of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and impaired neurochemistry as etiological mechanisms autism. Thirty young male Western albino rats were randomly divided as: Group I-control; Group II, in which autism was induced by the oral administration of 250 mg propionic acid/kg body weight/day for three days followed by orally administered saline until the end of experiment and Group III, the bee pollen-treated group, in which the rats were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of bee pollen for four weeks before autism was induced as described for Group II. Markers related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neurochemistry were measured in the brain tissue. Our results indicated that while glutathione serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), GABA/Glutamate ratio, and vitamin C were significantly reduced in propionic acid-treated group (p < 0.05), glutamate, IFN-γ, IL-1A, IL-6, caspase-3, and lipid peroxide levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Bee pollen supplementation demonstrates protective potency presented as amelioration of most of the measured variables with significance range between (p < 0.05)–(p < 0.001). View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; propionic acid; neurotransmitters; cytokines; apoptosis; oxidative stress; gut microbiota autism spectrum disorders; propionic acid; neurotransmitters; cytokines; apoptosis; oxidative stress; gut microbiota
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfawaz, H.A.; El-Ansary, A.; Al-Ayadhi, L.; Bhat, R.S.; Hassan, W.M. Protective Effects of Bee Pollen on Multiple Propionic Acid-Induced Biochemical Autistic Features in a Rat Model. Metabolites 2022, 12, 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070571

AMA Style

Alfawaz HA, El-Ansary A, Al-Ayadhi L, Bhat RS, Hassan WM. Protective Effects of Bee Pollen on Multiple Propionic Acid-Induced Biochemical Autistic Features in a Rat Model. Metabolites. 2022; 12(7):571. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfawaz, Hanan A., Afaf El-Ansary, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, and Wail M. Hassan. 2022. "Protective Effects of Bee Pollen on Multiple Propionic Acid-Induced Biochemical Autistic Features in a Rat Model" Metabolites 12, no. 7: 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12070571

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