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Article

NMR-Based Metabolomics in Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Subtypes

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
2
Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, University Hospital of Patras, 26504 Patras, Greece
3
Section of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Division of Systems Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK
4
National Phenome Centre, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, IRDB Building, London W120NN, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Brent Warren Winston, Angela Rogers, Kathleen A. Stringer and Chel Hee Lee
Metabolites 2022, 12(6), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060490
Received: 29 April 2022 / Revised: 23 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 May 2022 / Published: 28 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Metabolomics to Subphenotype Disease and Therapeutic Response)
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered as a major public health problem as it can lead to end-stage kidney failure, which requires replacement therapy. A prompt and accurate diagnosis, along with the appropriate treatment, can delay CKD’s progression, significantly. Herein, we sought to determine whether CKD etiology can be reflected in urine metabolomics during its early stage. This is achieved through the analysis of the urine metabolic fingerprint from 108 CKD patients by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy metabolomic analysis. We report the first NMR—metabolomics data regarding the three most common etiologies of CKD: Chronic Glomerulonephritis (IgA and Membranous Nephropathy), Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis (HN). Analysis aided a moderate glomerulonephritis clustering, providing characterization of the metabolic fluctuations between the CKD subtypes and control disease. The urine metabolome of IgA Nephropathy reveals a specific metabolism, reflecting its different etiology or origin and is useful for determining the origin of the disease. In contrast, urine metabolomes from DN and HN patients did not reveal any indicative metabolic pattern, which is consistent with their fused clinical phenotype. These findings may contribute to improving diagnostics and prognostic approaches for CKD, as well as improving our understanding of its pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: CKD; urine; metabolomics; NMR spectroscopy; glomerulonephritis; IgA; membranous; eGFR CKD; urine; metabolomics; NMR spectroscopy; glomerulonephritis; IgA; membranous; eGFR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chasapi, S.A.; Karagkouni, E.; Kalavrizioti, D.; Vamvakas, S.; Zompra, A.; Takis, P.G.; Goumenos, D.S.; Spyroulias, G.A. NMR-Based Metabolomics in Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Subtypes. Metabolites 2022, 12, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060490

AMA Style

Chasapi SA, Karagkouni E, Kalavrizioti D, Vamvakas S, Zompra A, Takis PG, Goumenos DS, Spyroulias GA. NMR-Based Metabolomics in Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Subtypes. Metabolites. 2022; 12(6):490. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chasapi, Styliani A., Evdokia Karagkouni, Dimitra Kalavrizioti, Sotirios Vamvakas, Aikaterini Zompra, Panteleimon G. Takis, Dimitrios S. Goumenos, and Georgios A. Spyroulias. 2022. "NMR-Based Metabolomics in Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Subtypes" Metabolites 12, no. 6: 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12060490

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