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Article

Non-Invasive Monitoring of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients during Prolonged Exercise via Exhaled Breath Volatile Organic Compounds

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Chemometrics, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, 6716 RP Ede, The Netherlands
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Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Department of Physiology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 EZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Satu Pekkala
Metabolites 2022, 12(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030224
Received: 14 February 2022 / Revised: 25 February 2022 / Accepted: 1 March 2022 / Published: 3 March 2022
The aim of this study was to investigate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath as possible non-invasive markers to monitor the inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients as a result of repeated and prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. We included 18 IBD patients and 19 non-IBD individuals who each completed a 30, 40, or 50 km walking exercise over three consecutive days. Breath and blood samples were taken before the start of the exercise event and every day post-exercise to assess changes in the VOC profiles and cytokine concentrations. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was used to measure exhaled breath VOCs. Multivariate analysis, particularly ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), was employed to extract relevant ions related to exercise and IBD. Prolonged exercise induces a similar response in breath butanoic acid and plasma cytokines for participants with or without IBD. Butanoic acid showed a significant correlation with the cytokine IL-6, indicating that butanoic acid could be a potential non-invasive marker for exercise-induced inflammation. The findings are relevant in monitoring personalized IBD management. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; exercise; breath analysis; PTR-ToF-MS; volatile organic compounds; butanoic acid inflammatory bowel disease; exercise; breath analysis; PTR-ToF-MS; volatile organic compounds; butanoic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Henderson, B.; Meurs, J.; Lamers, C.R.; Batista, G.L.; Materić, D.; Bertinetto, C.G.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Holzinger, R.; Harren, F.J.M.; Jansen, J.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Cristescu, S.M. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients during Prolonged Exercise via Exhaled Breath Volatile Organic Compounds. Metabolites 2022, 12, 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030224

AMA Style

Henderson B, Meurs J, Lamers CR, Batista GL, Materić D, Bertinetto CG, Bongers CCWG, Holzinger R, Harren FJM, Jansen JJ, Hopman MTE, Cristescu SM. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients during Prolonged Exercise via Exhaled Breath Volatile Organic Compounds. Metabolites. 2022; 12(3):224. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henderson, Ben, Joris Meurs, Carlijn R. Lamers, Guilherme Lopes Batista, Dušan Materić, Carlo G. Bertinetto, Coen C. W. G. Bongers, Rupert Holzinger, Frans J. M. Harren, Jeroen J. Jansen, Maria T. E. Hopman, and Simona M. Cristescu. 2022. "Non-Invasive Monitoring of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients during Prolonged Exercise via Exhaled Breath Volatile Organic Compounds" Metabolites 12, no. 3: 224. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030224

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