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Article

Solid-State Fermented Okara with Aspergillus spp. Improves Lipid Metabolism and High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity

1
Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Wakamatsu-cho 2-2, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan
2
Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eiichiro Fukusaki
Metabolites 2022, 12(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030198
Received: 22 December 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2022 / Accepted: 13 February 2022 / Published: 23 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Metabolomics Application for Food Fermentation)
Okara is a major by-product of soymilk and tofu production. Despite retaining abundant nutrients after the process, okara is often under-utilized. In this study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) of okara was carried out using a koji starter (containing both Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae) with the intention of releasing its untapped nutrients. Its effects on lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity (DIO) were observed. The nutritional profile of fermented okara was elucidated using the following parameters: total phenolic content (TPC), pH, protein content, dietary fiber, amino acid content, and free sugar content. In vivo experiments were conducted using high-fat diets supplemented with unfermented okara and fermented okara over three weeks. Supplementation with fermented okara reduced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, the serum triglyceride profile, and lipid accumulation in the liver, and altered the mRNA expression levels related to lipid metabolism; however, it did not affect pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in this study. In conclusion, high-fat diets supplemented using okara fermented with Aspergillus spp. improved the lipid metabolism in mice, due to their high nutritional value, such as TPC, soy protein, and amino acids, and their synergistic effects without altering the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: okara; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus sojae; solid-state fermentation; anti-obesity okara; Aspergillus oryzae; Aspergillus sojae; solid-state fermentation; anti-obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ichikawa, N.; Ng, L.S.; Makino, S.; Goh, L.L.; Lim, Y.J.; Ferdinandus; Sasaki, H.; Shibata, S.; Lee, C.-L.K. Solid-State Fermented Okara with Aspergillus spp. Improves Lipid Metabolism and High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity. Metabolites 2022, 12, 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030198

AMA Style

Ichikawa N, Ng LS, Makino S, Goh LL, Lim YJ, Ferdinandus, Sasaki H, Shibata S, Lee C-LK. Solid-State Fermented Okara with Aspergillus spp. Improves Lipid Metabolism and High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity. Metabolites. 2022; 12(3):198. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ichikawa, Natsumi, Li S. Ng, Saneyuki Makino, Luo L. Goh, Yun J. Lim, Ferdinandus, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Shigenobu Shibata, and Chi-Lik K. Lee. 2022. "Solid-State Fermented Okara with Aspergillus spp. Improves Lipid Metabolism and High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity" Metabolites 12, no. 3: 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12030198

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