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Review

Application of Metabolomics in Pediatric Asthma: Prediction, Diagnosis and Personalized Treatment

1
Department of Dietetics, Human Nutrition & Sport, School of Allied Health, Human Services & Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne 3086, Australia
2
European Institute of Nutritional Medicine, 00198 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
4
Metabolomic Medicine, Health Clinic for Autoimmune and Chronic Diseases, 10674 Athens, Greece
5
Laboratory of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences, Medical School, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
6
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María M. Escribese, André Moreira, Ibon Eguiluz-Gracia, Craig Wheelock and Alma Villaseñor
Metabolites 2021, 11(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040251
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 7 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 18 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Identification of Biomarkers of Asthma)
Asthma in children remains a significant public health challenge affecting 5–20% of children in Europe and is associated with increased morbidity and societal healthcare costs. The high variation in asthma incidence among countries may be attributed to differences in genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. This respiratory disorder is described as a heterogeneous syndrome of multiple clinical manifestations (phenotypes) with varying degrees of severity and airway hyper-responsiveness, which is based on patient symptoms, lung function and response to pharmacotherapy. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult due to diversities in clinical presentation. Therefore, identifying early diagnostic biomarkers and improving the monitoring of airway dysfunction and inflammatory through non-invasive methods are key goals in successful pediatric asthma management. Given that asthma is caused by the interaction between genes and environmental factors, an emerging approach, metabolomics—the systematic analysis of small molecules—can provide more insight into asthma pathophysiological mechanisms, enable the identification of early biomarkers and targeted personalized therapies, thus reducing disease burden and societal cost. The purpose of this review is to present evidence on the utility of metabolomics in pediatric asthma through the analysis of intermediate metabolites of biochemical pathways that involve carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, organic acids and nucleotides and discuss their potential application in clinical practice. Also, current challenges on the integration of metabolomics in pediatric asthma management and needed next steps are critically discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; asthma phenotypes; pediatric; metabolomics; biomarkers asthma; asthma phenotypes; pediatric; metabolomics; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Papamichael, M.M.; Katsardis, C.; Sarandi, E.; Georgaki, S.; Frima, E.-S.; Varvarigou, A.; Tsoukalas, D. Application of Metabolomics in Pediatric Asthma: Prediction, Diagnosis and Personalized Treatment. Metabolites 2021, 11, 251. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040251

AMA Style

Papamichael MM, Katsardis C, Sarandi E, Georgaki S, Frima E-S, Varvarigou A, Tsoukalas D. Application of Metabolomics in Pediatric Asthma: Prediction, Diagnosis and Personalized Treatment. Metabolites. 2021; 11(4):251. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040251

Chicago/Turabian Style

Papamichael, Maria M., Charis Katsardis, Evangelia Sarandi, Spyridoula Georgaki, Eirini-Sofia Frima, Anastasia Varvarigou, and Dimitris Tsoukalas. 2021. "Application of Metabolomics in Pediatric Asthma: Prediction, Diagnosis and Personalized Treatment" Metabolites 11, no. 4: 251. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11040251

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