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Metabolomics Differences of Glycine max QTLs Resistant to Soybean Looper

1
Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2
Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
3
Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hirokazu Kawagishi, Ian Dubery, Lizelle A. Piater and Fidele Tugizimana
Metabolites 2021, 11(10), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11100710
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 12 October 2021 / Published: 19 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Agriculture Volume 2)
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) E and M are major soybean alleles that confer resistance to leaf-chewing insects, and are particularly effective in combination. Flavonoids and/or isoflavonoids are classes of plant secondary metabolites that previous studies agree are the causative agents of resistance of these QTLs. However, all previous studies have compared soybean genotypes that are of dissimilar genetic backgrounds, leaving it questionable what metabolites are a result of the QTL rather than the genetic background. Here, we conducted a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach without liquid chromatography to identify differences in metabolite levels among QTLs E, M, and both (EM) that were introgressed into the background of the susceptible variety Benning. Our results found that E and M mainly confer low-level, global differences in distinct sets of metabolites. The isoflavonoid daidzein was the only metabolite that demonstrated major increases, specifically in insect-treated M and EM. Interestingly, M confers increased daidzein levels in response to insect, whereas E restores M’s depleted daidzein levels in the absence of insect. Since daidzein levels do not parallel levels of resistance, our data suggest a novel mechanism that the QTLs confer resistance to insects by mediating changes in hundreds of metabolites, which would be difficult for the insect to evolve tolerance. Collective global metabolite differences conferred by E and M might explain the increased resistance of EM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Glycine max; insect resistance QTLs; Chrysodeixis includens; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; isoflavonoids Glycine max; insect resistance QTLs; Chrysodeixis includens; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; isoflavonoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yousefi-Taemeh, M.; Lin, J.; Ifa, D.R.; Parrott, W.; Kovinich, N. Metabolomics Differences of Glycine max QTLs Resistant to Soybean Looper. Metabolites 2021, 11, 710. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11100710

AMA Style

Yousefi-Taemeh M, Lin J, Ifa DR, Parrott W, Kovinich N. Metabolomics Differences of Glycine max QTLs Resistant to Soybean Looper. Metabolites. 2021; 11(10):710. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11100710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yousefi-Taemeh, Maryam, Jie Lin, Demian R. Ifa, Wayne Parrott, and Nik Kovinich. 2021. "Metabolomics Differences of Glycine max QTLs Resistant to Soybean Looper" Metabolites 11, no. 10: 710. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11100710

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