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Open AccessArticle

Local Phenomena Shape Backyard Soil Metabolite Composition

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
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Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
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Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
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Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
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Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
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Laboratories of Molecular Anthropology and Microbiome Research, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Metabolites 2020, 10(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10030086
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 27 February 2020 / Published: 29 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science)
Soil covers most of Earth’s continental surface and is fundamental to life-sustaining processes such as agriculture. Given its rich biodiversity, soil is also a major source for natural product drug discovery from soil microorganisms. However, the study of the soil small molecule profile has been challenging due to the complexity and heterogeneity of this matrix. In this study, we implemented high-resolution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and large-scale data analysis tools such as molecular networking to characterize the relative contributions of city, state and regional processes on backyard soil metabolite composition, in 188 soil samples collected from 14 USA States, representing five USA climate regions. We observed that region, state and city of collection all influence the overall soil metabolite profile. However, many metabolites were only detected in unique sites, indicating that uniquely local phenomena also influence the backyard soil environment, with both human-derived and naturally-produced (plant-derived, microbially-derived) metabolites identified. Overall, these findings are helping to define the processes that shape the backyard soil metabolite composition, while also highlighting the need for expanded metabolomic studies of this complex environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil; metabolomics; LC-MS/MS; molecular networking; human activity; natural products soil; metabolomics; LC-MS/MS; molecular networking; human activity; natural products
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Nguyen, T.D.; Lesani, M.; Forrest, I.; Lan, Y.; Dean, D.A.; Gibaut, Q.M.R.; Guo, Y.; Hossain, E.; Olvera, M.; Panlilio, H.; Parab, A.R.; Wu, C.; Bernatchez, J.A.; Cichewicz, R.H.; McCall, L.-I. Local Phenomena Shape Backyard Soil Metabolite Composition. Metabolites 2020, 10, 86.

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