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Open AccessReview

Current Practice in Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics

1
Neonatal Research Unit, Health Research Institute La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain
2
Division of Neonatology, University & Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain
3
Health and Biomedicine, Leitat Technological Center, Carrer de la Innovació, 2, 08225 Terrassa, Spain
4
Unidad Analítica, Health Research Institute La Fe, Avenida Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Metabolites 2020, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo10020043
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sample Preparation in Metabolomics)
Human milk (HM) is considered the gold standard for infant nutrition. HM contains macro- and micronutrients, as well as a range of bioactive compounds (hormones, growth factors, cell debris, etc.). The analysis of the complex and dynamic composition of HM has been a permanent challenge for researchers. The use of novel, cutting-edge techniques involving different metabolomics platforms has permitted to expand knowledge on the variable composition of HM. This review aims to present the state-of-the-art in untargeted metabolomic studies of HM, with emphasis on sampling, extraction and analysis steps. Workflows available from the literature have been critically revised and compared, including a comprehensive assessment of the achievable metabolome coverage. Based on the scientific evidence available, recommendations for future untargeted HM metabolomics studies are included. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; metabolome; sampling; extraction; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS); capillary electrophoresis—mass spectrometry (CE-MS) human milk; metabolome; sampling; extraction; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS); capillary electrophoresis—mass spectrometry (CE-MS)
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Ten-Doménech, I.; Ramos-Garcia, V.; Piñeiro-Ramos, J.D.; Gormaz, M.; Parra-Llorca, A.; Vento, M.; Kuligowski, J.; Quintás, G. Current Practice in Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics. Metabolites 2020, 10, 43.

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