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UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and UPLC–PDA Combined with Multivariate Calibration for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva Standardization Based on Phenolic Compounds

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Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Flora, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, IVAGRO, University of Cadiz, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario (CeiA3), Campus del Rio San Pedro, Puerto Real, 11510 Cadiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helen D. Skaltsa
Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040047
Received: 14 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 22 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
The algae Kappaphycus alvarezii is considered an important raw material for industrial practices, producing high economic value of various derived products. However, the quality of this commodity, which can be indicated by the level of phenolic compounds, may vary due to growth factors, including cultivation sites. An analytical UV-Vis spectrophotometry method coupled with chemometrics was proposed to standardize the red alga based on the content of phenolic compounds. The correlation between the UV-Vis spectra and UPLC–PDA results, combined with a multivariate calibration of the K. alvarezii extracts, was analyzed. The extracts were prepared using an ultrasound-based technique and subsequently subjected to UV-Vis spectral measurements at 200–800 nm and UPLC–PDA at 260 and 330 nm. Chemometric techniques and partial least squares (PLS) were applied to the acquired data to build a reliable analysis of the phenolics in the K. alvarezii extracts. The result showed that the wavelength combination of 200–450 and 600–690 nm provided a valid method for quantitative analysis of the studied phenolics that belong to hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and flavonoid with a coefficient of regression (R2) > 0.96 in the calibration and validation models, along with an RMSEC and RMSEP value < 8%. The method was then employed to characterize the K. alvarezii samples from 13 different cultivation areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) generated principal components that produced a clear distribution among the samples of K. alvarezii based on phenolic compounds corresponding to the geographical origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemometrics; flavonoid; partial least squares; phenolic acid; principal component analysis chemometrics; flavonoid; partial least squares; phenolic acid; principal component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mutiarahma, S.; Putra, V.G.P.; Chaniago, W.; Carrera, C.; Anggrahini, S.; Palma, M.; Setyaningsih, W. UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and UPLC–PDA Combined with Multivariate Calibration for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva Standardization Based on Phenolic Compounds. Sci. Pharm. 2021, 89, 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040047

AMA Style

Mutiarahma S, Putra VGP, Chaniago W, Carrera C, Anggrahini S, Palma M, Setyaningsih W. UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and UPLC–PDA Combined with Multivariate Calibration for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva Standardization Based on Phenolic Compounds. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2021; 89(4):47. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mutiarahma, Selma, Venansius G.P. Putra, Weni Chaniago, Ceferino Carrera, Sri Anggrahini, Miguel Palma, and Widiastuti Setyaningsih. 2021. "UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and UPLC–PDA Combined with Multivariate Calibration for Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva Standardization Based on Phenolic Compounds" Scientia Pharmaceutica 89, no. 4: 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm89040047

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