Next Article in Journal
Association of HCV Infection with C-Reactive Protein: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009–2010
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibitory Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Echinococcus granulosus Hydatid Cyst
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Version is current.

Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Social Interaction Improved by Oxytocin in the Subclass of Autism with Comorbid Intellectual Disabilities

Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences and Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Eiheiji 910-1193, Japan
Department of Psychiatry and Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2019, 7(1), 24;
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-psychiatric Disorders)
PDF [245 KB, uploaded 22 February 2019]
  |     |  


Approximately half of all autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals suffer from comorbid intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, the prevalence of epilepsy has been estimated to be 46% of patients with low intelligence quotient. It is important to investigate the therapeutic benefits and adverse effects of any recently developed drugs for this proportion of individuals with the so-called Kanner type of ASD. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic and/or adverse effects of intranasal oxytocin (OT) administration, especially in adolescents and adults with ASD and comorbid intellectual disability and epilepsy, with regard to core symptoms of social deficits. We have already reported three randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). However, we revisit results in our pilot studies from the view of comorbidity. Most of the intellectually disabled participants were found to be feasible participants of the RCT. We observed significantly more events regarded as reciprocal social interaction in the OT group compared with the placebo group. In the trial, no or little differences in adverse events were found between the OT and placebo arms, as found in some other reports. However, seizures were induced in three participants with medical history of epilepsy during or after OT treatment. In conclusion, we stress that behavioral changes in ASD patients with intellectual disabilities could be recognized not by the conventional measurements of ASD symptoms but by detailed evaluation of social interactions arising in daily-life situations. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; oxytocin; subclasses; intellectual disability; epilepsy; randomized controlled trial autism; oxytocin; subclasses; intellectual disability; epilepsy; randomized controlled trial

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Higashida, H.; Munesue, T.; Kosaka, H.; Yamasue, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Kikuchi, M. Social Interaction Improved by Oxytocin in the Subclass of Autism with Comorbid Intellectual Disabilities. Diseases 2019, 7, 24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Diseases EISSN 2079-9721 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top