Impact of Gut Dysbiosis on Neurohormonal Pathways in Chronic Kidney Disease
AbstractChronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide major health problem. Traditional risk factors for CKD are hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified gut dysbiosis as a novel risk factor for the progression CKD and its complications. Dysbiosis can worsen systemic inflammation, which plays an important role in the progression of CKD and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the beneficial effects of the normal gut microbiota, and then elaborate on how alterations in the biochemical environment of the gastrointestinal tract in CKD can affect gut microbiota. External factors such as dietary restrictions, medications, and dialysis further promote dysbiosis. We discuss the impact of an altered gut microbiota on neuroendocrine pathways such as the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis, the production of neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, tryptophan metabolism, and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Finally, therapeutic strategies including diet modification, intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics are reviewed. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Jazani, N.H.; Savoj, J.; Lustgarten, M.; Lau, W.L.; Vaziri, N.D. Impact of Gut Dysbiosis on Neurohormonal Pathways in Chronic Kidney Disease. Diseases 2019, 7, 21.
Jazani NH, Savoj J, Lustgarten M, Lau WL, Vaziri ND. Impact of Gut Dysbiosis on Neurohormonal Pathways in Chronic Kidney Disease. Diseases. 2019; 7(1):21.Chicago/Turabian Style
Jazani, Nima H.; Savoj, Javad; Lustgarten, Michael; Lau, Wei L.; Vaziri, Nosratola D. 2019. "Impact of Gut Dysbiosis on Neurohormonal Pathways in Chronic Kidney Disease." Diseases 7, no. 1: 21.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.