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Prevention of Progression in Myopia: A Systematic Review

Eye Clinic of Genoa, Policlinico San Martino, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy
School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
University Eye Clinic San Giuseppe Hospital, University of Milan, 20162 Milano, Italy
Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Teaching Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2018, 6(4), 92;
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 30 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Diseases)
PDF [310 KB, uploaded 30 September 2018]


The prevalence of myopia has increased worldwide in recent decades and now is endemic over the entire industrial world. This increase is mainly caused by changes in lifestyle and behavior. In particular, the amount of outdoor activities and near work would display an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several strategies have been reported as effective. Spectacles and contact lenses have shown only slight results in the prevention of myopia and similarly ortokerathology should not be considered as a first-line strategy, given the high risk of infectious keratitis and the relatively low compliance for the patients. Thus, to date, atropine ophthalmic drops seem to be the most effective treatment for slowing the progression of myopia, although the exact mechanism of the effect of treatment is still uncertain. In particular, low-dose atropine (0.01%) was proven to be an effective and safe treatment in the long term due to the lowest rebound effect with negligible side effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: myopia; myopia prevention; atropine; ATOM; orthokeratology; spectacles myopia; myopia prevention; atropine; ATOM; orthokeratology; spectacles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Vagge, A.; Ferro Desideri, L.; Nucci, P.; Serafino, M.; Giannaccare, G.; Traverso, C.E. Prevention of Progression in Myopia: A Systematic Review. Diseases 2018, 6, 92.

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