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Prevention of Progression in Myopia: A Systematic Review

Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (CNLDO): A Review

Eye Clinic of Genoa, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy
IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy
School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
University Eye Clinic San Giuseppe Hospital, University of Milan, 20162 Milano, Italy
Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Teaching Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diseases 2018, 6(4), 96;
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pediatric Diseases)
Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is a common condition causing excessive tearing or mucoid discharge from the eyes, due to blockage of the nasolacrimal duct system. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction affects as many as 20% children aged <1 year worldwide and is often resolved without surgery. Available treatment options are conservative therapy, including observation, lacrimal sac massage and antibiotics, and invasive therapy. Observation, combined with conservative options, seems to be the best option in infants aged <1 year. Meanwhile, in children aged >1 year, nasolacrimal probing successfully addresses most obstructions. However, the most favorable timing for probing remains controversial. To alleviate persistent epiphora and mucous drainage that is refractory to probing, repeat probing, silicone tube intubation, balloon catheter dilation or dacryocystorhinostomy can be considered as available treatment options. Our review aims to provide an update to CNDO management protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction; lacrimal apparatus; tears congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction; lacrimal apparatus; tears
MDPI and ACS Style

Vagge, A.; Ferro Desideri, L.; Nucci, P.; Serafino, M.; Giannaccare, G.; Lembo, A.; Traverso, C.E. Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (CNLDO): A Review. Diseases 2018, 6, 96.

AMA Style

Vagge A, Ferro Desideri L, Nucci P, Serafino M, Giannaccare G, Lembo A, Traverso CE. Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (CNLDO): A Review. Diseases. 2018; 6(4):96.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vagge, Aldo, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Paolo Nucci, Massimiliano Serafino, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Andrea Lembo, and Carlo E. Traverso. 2018. "Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction (CNLDO): A Review" Diseases 6, no. 4: 96.

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