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Diseases 2018, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6020029

Levels of Soluble Endothelium Adhesion Molecules and Complications among Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Ghana

1
Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
3
Sickle Cell Clinic, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
4
Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
5
Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Greenhills School of Health Sciences, Accra, Ghana
6
Department of internal Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
7
Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
8
Department of Haematology, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract

Background: Soluble adhesion molecules are involved in the gathering and joining of inflammatory cells to vascular endothelium. Therefore, they serve as potential markers of endothelial dysfunction in vascular diseases including sickle cell disease (SCD). In Ghana, there are scarcely any report on the levels of adhesion molecules among SCD patients. The current study aimed to determine plasma levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin as markers of endothelial dysfunction in SCD patients in steady state, complications and controls. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study involving 60 HbAA controls, 46 HbSS steady state, 57 HbSS VOC, 18 HbSC VOC, 21 HbSS with leg ulcer and 11 HbSS with priapism. Blood samples were collected from all the study subjects (n = 213) and processed into plasma. The plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-Selectin concentrations of SCD patients and controls were measured using a double sandwich ELISA technique. Demographic information was also collected from the study subjects. Results: Levels of all soluble proteins (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin) were significantly higher in HbSS steady-state patients compared to non-SCD controls (p < 0.001). Generally, SCD patients with complications had relatively higher levels of the soluble proteins compared to those in the steady-state. Of the SCD patients with complications, those with vaso-occlusion crisis (HbSS VOC) had relatively higher levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin at (62.42 ng/mL ± 26.09), (634.99 ng/mL ± 324.31) and (236.77 ng/mL ± 114.40) respectively; Conclusion: Although levels of adhesion molecules were high in all the SCD patients with complications, those with vaso-occlusive crisis had higher levels. This might reflect an ongoing endothelial dysfunction in these patients. SCD patients with vaso-occlusive crisis presents with a more severe pathophysiology condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: sickle cell disease; endothelial dysfunction; soluble adhesion molecules; ICAM-1; VCAM-1 and E-Selectin sickle cell disease; endothelial dysfunction; soluble adhesion molecules; ICAM-1; VCAM-1 and E-Selectin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Antwi-Boasiako, C.; Donkor, E.S.; Sey, F.; Dzudzor, B.; Dankwah, G.B.; Otu, K.H.; Doku, A.; Dale, C.A.; Ekem, I. Levels of Soluble Endothelium Adhesion Molecules and Complications among Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Ghana. Diseases 2018, 6, 29.

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