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Effective Beamforming Technique Amid Optimal Value for Wireless Communication

Department of Computer Science, NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology Multan, Multan 66000, Pakistan
College of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Department, Najran University, Najran 61441, Saudi Arabia
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Defense Road off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Computer Science, University of Okara, Okara 56300, Pakistan
Department of Automatic Control and Robotics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatics, Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Laboratory for Industrial Metrology and Automation, College of Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
Department of computer Science, College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Najran 61441, Saudi Arabia
Department of Computer Science, University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(11), 1869;
Submission received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Signal Processing and Circuit Analysis)


In the notion of communication system resource provision specifically, beam-forming is a concept of proficient utilization of the power of transmission. Network densification and massive MIMO allows us to control the power efficiency and can be effectively distributed among different users by reducing cost. We presented a practical scenario for the performance of massive MIMO and multi-small cell system to analyze the overall performance of the system. Our work is based on the resource allocation with optimal structural constraints to maintain the cost effectiveness while considering economic implications. The base stations located far away from the users receive attenuated signals and give rise to path loss, whereas the problems of inter cell interference also arise due to transmission from a base station to others cells. The performance of the cellular system can be enhanced with the combination of massive Mimo and small cells, where we simulate and also provide an analysis on practical system with optimal and low complexity beam-forming. The proposed scenario illustrates a structure with an optimal linear transmit beamforming regarding an efficient number of parameters to not lose optimality, which is extendable to designate any specific cellular network in consideration. Our approach exploited schemes with low complexity that are facilitating in complete solution formation, and tested them in various and all possible cases and scenarios.

1. Introduction

The proposed study provides an approach for the optimization of the energy efficiency in wireless networks. Resources in the communication system are providing the basis for connectivity, coordination and information sharing. If the resource is optimally utilized, the operation will be smooth. previous studied work of the optimal utilization of resources for wireless communication network and signal processing is focused on the functionality of available resources and accomplishment of the tasks of connectivity for data and processing. Recently, data traffic has been increasing rapidly. To cope with the demand of speed in connectivity by the end user, one solution is to provide a separate antenna for each; however, this is not viable. For a recently designed communication system, it is common to facilitate numbered users. Similarly, when facilitating larger users, in some cases a lot of antennas can be observed, but sometimes not. However, the efficient utilization of resources in the existing wireless setup is an effective way forward. The optimal utilization of resources yields maximum throughput. It is a significant and prime consideration to utilize the frequency in an optimal way. Multiple beam-forming techniques such as MRT, XFBF, and SLNR are considered. Resultant effectiveness of the proposed approach is explained with the aid of various dimensions. The focus is to provide the concept of the inevitable importance of resource utilization. Results from cited approaches show a compact analysis of the utilization of the system resources in an established design or architecture. The structural design of the arrangement is explained briefly in the next sections, and a complete analysis of the evaluation in a practical system is mentioned in the following section. The notion of evaluation of per user beam-forming posed by Emil et al.’s cited technique also emphasises the optimization of the resources [1]. The resource per user in primary and the average aggregate are used at the end of the analysis. In a collective way, using data analysis from the existing structure enabled us to define the infrastructure of the future communication system. However, in the wireless communication system, a few of their resources are already distributed among the consumers in an unjustifiable way. The cited advance booking-based approach is not too effective in resource exploitation because of the inconsistency in the manner of the packets [1,2]. It is of primary importance for networks with a service of small packets, for a great number of users. Keeping in mind the significance of pilot contamination moderation for ensuring the improvement in enactment of massive MIMO, a lot of arrangements, varying from advanced channel estimation and to down link pre-coding to optimal pilot design and allocation, have been proposed to cater to the stated issue [1,3,4]. User terminals (UTs) which are mobile may obtain wireless facilities from a base station located exclusive in every cell, in a range of the coverage region. There should be the establishment of a networking connection among all base stations (BSs) with a central or critical network wired [5]. This increases the likelihood of a few problems, like inter-cell interference (ICI) and path loss. It should be mentioned that both factors might give rise to other, different issues. For instance, both decrease the (1) signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), and therefore (2) attainable data rates of the consumer terminals [3,4]. Though massive MIMO and positioning SCA can lead to a difficulty in inter-consumer interference and in a complicated linkage, which is resulting in users being outnumbered and many antennas being installed at the BS [6,7].
This paper examines the possible improvements in energy efficiency when the classical small cell topology is modified by employing massive MIMO at the MS and SISO at the user. We assume perfect channel acquisition and a backhaul network that supports interference coordination; we thus consider an ultimate bound on what is practically achievable. We presented a practical scenario for the performance of massive MIMO and multi small cell system to analyze the overall performance of the system. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption while satisfying quality of service constraints at the users and power constraints at the MS.
Our study proceeds in the following way; Section 2 provides some state of the art work; Section 3 includes system modelling. Section 4 discusses multiple beam-forming techniques; Section 5 contains data analysis and results about practical scenarios; finally, we conclude our study.

2. Related Work

Relevant work for our proposed approach was explored. It was observed that a huge number of antennas in the base station can lead to the occurrence of various t orthogonal links from the user side to the site of the base station. If the number of antennas is abundant at BS, the diverse propagation links from the users to the BS are inclined to be orthogonal, and the large extent of spatial degrees of autonomy is handy in mitigating the impact of profligate fading. Generally, a massive MIMO approach offers advanced better spectral, data rate and energy efficiency. Overall, these gains brand massive MIMO as an auspicious approach. It requires highly applied attention to networks posing small packet services to a big number of users [6,8]. The key contest met is the use of the various existing schemes for the utilization of resources and the right communication. This can be a factor such as, in power systems, a practice based on CS for meter reading in a smart grid being proposed; it is supposed to apply to single antenna systems. Moreover, a unique neighbour discovery technique in wireless networks with Reed–Muller codes is listed in the citation, and the CS technique is also implemented [6,9,10]. However, in the situation of the base station, the BS is not practically faultless CSI; it approximates the channels as a typical scenario. Conservatively, it is completed via uplink pilots. Subsequently, together the time-frequency resources assigned for pilot transmission and the channel coherence time are inadequate, the number of conceivable orthogonal pilot sequences is inadequate. Therefore, the pilot sequences need to be recycled in adjacent cells of cellular systems [6,11].
It is crucial that at base station, signals are expected at the same time or with small-time variances. It is a significant job to compute it without assessment; otherwise, data investigation. Consider massive MIMO and small scale networks; there are a large number of enhancements in dynamic parts, but because of complications and dense arrays, they require more hardware. Therefore, the size of the system upsurges. Hence, to accomplish the demand, it is required to be installed in a rational and efficient manner with reverence to optimized energy. In the long run, in viewing at massive MIMO approaches, it demonstrates a rise in data rates. Energy and spectral efficiency are likewise extraordinary. It can increase the number of lively users operatively surprisingly more than the number of antennas and offer a huge number of services to outnumbered users. The far-reaching way to improve data rate is spatial multiplexing that is completed without the norm of much frequency resources and observing the identical total transmit power [12]. Shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4, multiple antenna scenarios are illustrated in case of a limited quantity of antennas, merely limited results are attained such that a limited spatial directive was gained. The system model is illustrated in Figure 5 and Figure 6, whereas in Figure 7 we shows the establishment of an exemplary connection at different intervals of the time. The cited approach forecasts the interference that is due to the energy leakage. However, it is a complex task to manage an equilibrium amid minimization of the interface leakages and signal power maximization [6,13] in consideration of the case of multi-user spread beam-forming. It is generally a non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP) hard problem [6,14]. Therefore, based on the lacking factors in the cited literature, a roam for the development of our proposed approach was observed. To improve and to overcome the lacking in the previously cited techniques, the proposed approach is presented. Our proposed study is more optimized.
In the literature, beamforming has never been used before, especially when the small cell cellular system is modified by employing massive MIMO at the MS and SISO at the user. Our paper can fill this gap, and study the possible improvements in the energy efficiency. The main purpose of this work is to provide a practical scenario for an optimal linear transmit beamforming, and to study to what extend can beamforming improve the system performance of a multi cell system, with a sufficient number of design parameters to not lose optimality. This simple structure provides many insights and is easily extended to take various design constraints of practical cellular systems into account.

3. Preliminaries

The following section describes the proposed approach and model.

3.1. Single Cell Down Link

Consider a case for single-cell where a base station having X antennas connects with M user devices. Mth user is symbolized MSm (the abbreviated for the mobile station) and is supposed to have a single operative antenna. Such an instance can be noticed as the superposition of several multiple-input single-output (MISO) links. Therefore, it is also recognized as the MISO broadcast channel or multi-user MISO communication [1,13,15]. The channel to MSm is supposed to be flat fading and characterized in the complex base-band by the dimensionless vector S M C X from the current system model; this can be further explained mathematically as in Equation (1) and users given as follows. The channel from MSm to user is supposed to be flat fading and characterized in the current MIMO-based cellular system by the dimensionless vector h x M C X , which can further explain it mathematically, as follows in Equation (1)
y M = h x M x + X M
The transmitted signal, x C M contains data signals intended for every user and is given by
x = M = 1 M r s M
where S M C X is the signal anticipated for M S M . Such stochastic data signals are exhibited as zero-mean with signal correlation matrices as given by
s M = E s M s M H ϵ C X X
The transmission technique is recognized as linear multi-stream beam-forming rank, and further (SM) is the number of streams, and the signal correlation matrices are significant design parameters that can be used to optimize the performance utility of the system. The power resources accessible for transmission requirement require to be restricted up to an extent, to model the inherent limitations of practical systems somehow. The average transmits power (SM) and noise power σ 2 are usually measured in milli-watt [mW], with dBm as the conforming unit in decibels. Let us assume that there are P linear power constraints, which are defined as a physical limitation [16], for example, we say to protect the dynamic power range amplifier.
M = 1 M r t r Q l M S k M q l , w h e r e l = 1 M
There are particular schemes that are contingent on system protocol, such as frequency division duplex (FDD) and time division duplex (TDD). There is a channel matrix H C M M in the user M and antennas array BS. There is a definite order with reverence to users and BS such as the column of H, which is represented by interpreting the M × 1 channel vector amid the base station, and Mth user and the element of H are Gaussian distributed, having zero mean and unit variance.

3.2. Up Link Transmission

In a reverse link transmission, M user is transferring signals to B S . Consider a case SM where E | S M | 2 = 1 is the transmitted signal from the Mth user and Mth user share the precisely the identical sources of time and frequency and in an overall way the M × 1 received signal vector at the BS is the combination of all signals transferred from all users as in Equations (4) and (5). The subsequent portion represents uplink transmission.
Y u l = p u M = 1 M h k S M + X
Y u l = p u H s + X
In Equation (6), pu is the value of average signal to noise ratio, i.e., SNR and n are the value presenting additive noise vectors and s Δ s 1 , s 2 , s 3 . . . s n T . The channel modes shown in cited approach are multiple-access channels which have the sum-capacity [17].
C u l , s u m = l o g 2 d e t I k + p u H h H
Some sort of sum capacity, as mentioned above, can be achieved by using the successive interference cancellation method (SIC). In the mentioned technique using SIC, as one is detected after its detection, the signal is subtracted from the relieved signal before the detection of the next user [18].

3.3. Down-Link (Forward-Link) Transmission

In a forward link transmission, M user is transmitting signals to BS. For instance, the transmitted signal from BS antenna array and the received signal at Mth user is as in Equation (8).
Y d l , M = p d h M T x + Z M
Now, Pd is the average value of SNR and ZM is the additive noise value at Mth user. Consider that ZM is Gaussian distributed with unit variance and zero mean. Together, the received signal vector of the M users can be written as explained in below Equation (9).
Y d l = s Δ [ Y d l 1 , Y d l 2 , . . Y d l M ] T a n d z Δ [ z 1 , z 2 , . . z M ] T
It is essential to distinguish that uplink and downlink channels are reciprocal in the TDD systems. There exist very durable connectivity among receive combining in the up-link and transmitting pre-coding in the down-link. In this uplink-downlink duality linear pre-coding based in MR, ZF, Or MMSE, and the basic standard and values of these methods and approaches can be posed to focus every signal at the respective desired terminal, and the purpose may be to decrease or to mitigate the level or value of interference at the other terminals [6,12]. It is significant to know that uplink and downlink channels are reciprocal in the TDD systems. There exist a very strong connectivity between receive combining in the uplink and transmitting pre-coding in the downlink. In this uplink-downlink duality linear pre-coding based in MR, ZF, Or MMSE, and the basic criterions and principles of these methods and techniques can be applied to focus on each and every signal at the respective desired terminal; the purpose may be to reduce or to mitigate the value or level of interference at the other terminals.

3.4. Multiple Beam-Forming Techniques

In the scenario we have described, we have considered the user K with different values and the sum rate utility function and demonstrate the simulation results and a practical implementation with respect to the optimal resource utilization. The Figures above show simulation results for the scenario for transmit antennas with the numbers prescribed. The diagrams illustrate scenarios separately and collective comparative results are also elaborated with multiple numbers of antennas. The advantage of optimal beam-forming is the maximization of received signal power at a low rate value of SNR, minimization of interference leakage at high value of SNR range and creation of a balance in between the confliction at the moderate or intermediate SNRs ranges.
There is the surfeit of state of the art techniques and schemes to attain high signal power, to transfer unchanged data signals from entire antennas with various phases and amplitudes. Unluckily, the limited number of transmit antennas merely offer an inadequate amount of spatial directivity, which may cause energy leakages among the users who behave like interference. In the viewpoint of total power restrictions values as it may observe simple power minimization issues and further it will derive the structure of optimal beam-forming. Figure 8 and Figure 9 represent antenna parameters for the connectivity. The azimuth and post-azimuth indicate a significant distinction for the MIMO wireless network [6]. In Figure 10 the analysis with electrical and post-electrical scenarios shows the phase control of signal and post-mechanical tilt. It demonstrate the control on the overall segments and coverage overlaps. Consider a case for a downlink channel in that BS is furnished with X antennas and can connect by having users exploiting SDMA and single antenna [12,13]. In the case where antennas are accessible in reverence to the number of users, then tentatively the data signal to M users is shown as; s M C , and further, it is regularized to unity power and the vector h k C X x 1 explains the vector channel.
Via linear beam-forming, M signals of different data can be disjoined. For instance beam-forming vectors w 1 , w 2 , W M C X x 1 whereas wM is associated with M user. It is the normalized version in a way that the beam-forming vectors dimension and direction in space is represented. It is noteworthy that in LoS cases, it provides physical direction. A representation can be represented to depict a received signal that is as r M C at user M, as shown in Equation (11).
r M = h M H i = 1 M w i s i + n M
Though it is noticeable that in accordance with zero mean and variance, values of additive receiver noise, signal to noise interference ratio for user M is as mentioned in Equation (12).
S I N R M = | h M H w M | 2 i M | h M H w M | 2 + σ = 1 σ 2 | h M H w M | 2 i M 1 σ 2 | h M H w M | 2 | + 1
The power optimization issue as defined in [5] and moreover for the centralized control system and distributive control system in the listed literature is providing the building block for power transmission [6,19]. Via transmit beam-forming, the optimization of metric for performance utility can be attained, however it is a generic l function in SINR [14,16]. Assessment in the simple power minimization issue as mentioned below is not a complex task to practice to develop optimal beam-forming structure [5,6]
M i n i m i z e M = 1 M w M 2 s u b j e c t t o S I N R M y M
In order to study the issue of optimization of beam-forming keenly, the job is to optimize the arbitrary utility function F (SINR 1 …SINR M ), which is growing in the value of SINR of each user, and there is a restraint in the total transmit power, i.e., restricted by the maximization of the received signal power. Because of this selection at the particular envisioned user the channel vector hm which amid the base station BS and the projected user’s m and 2 is the matrix; the matrix [20,21].
w * = [ w 1 , w 2 , w m ] C X m I X + i = 1 M λ i δ 2 h i h i H 1
In correspondence of the beam-forming in the alike direction from the expression of the channel is mapped maximum ratio transmit (MRT) or filtering [22]. As in Equation (15),
W M * = p M I N + i = 1 M λ i δ 2 h i h i H 1 + h M I N + i = 1 M λ i δ 2 h i h i H 1 + h M arg max w ˜ M : w ˜ M 2 = 1 h M H w ˜ M 2 = h M h M
The mentioned expression following the above-listed fact for MRT is because of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality. Optimization for beam-forming directions of the values is M = 1. Moreover, in a situation where a considerable number of users are encountered due to inter-user interference is not considered in it for MRT.
The latest 5G technology is having a promising effect on the 3D beam-forming aspects. Enhancement in the future will be fundamentally based on the extension of the components in the network and on the directivity and beam-forming being a distinguishing parameter in this regard [16,23].

3.5. Power Constraints in Practical System

In an applied and empirical-based system, data containing the following parameters in the network operation for the LTE rate calculation are as in the following part. One resource block element is 15 kHz whereas, 1 RB in the freq domain equals 180 kH, 1 RB in the time domain is 0.5 ms resource allocation.
Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3 depict a scenario for multiple antennas. As in Figure 3, the number of antennas is N = 25, so the results are more optimal for the users. The operational capabilities rely on these constraints. The constraints are as mentioned below. Block (basic allocation unit) is equivalent to 12 Sub carriers. The 20 MHz channel here is 100 Resource Blocks, and 5 MHz channel is equated to 25 Resource Blocks. In case of MIMO 2 × 2 = 20 × 2 = 40 Mbps and in case of MIMO 4 × 4 = 20 × 4 = 80 Mbps. With 20 MHz and MIMO 4 × 4, 300 Mbps can be achieved with 10 MHz and MIMO 4 × 4, 150 Mbps can be achieved with 20 MHz and MIMO 2 × 2, 150 Mbps can be achieved, with 10 MHz and MIMO 2 × 275 Mbps can be achieved for the resource available at the LTE calculation scenario prescribed. The utilization of resources is as mentioned below for the system.
The prescribed scenario in accordance with the results can bring significant reforms and may bring a substantial improvement in the field of telecom when it regards the usage of radio frequency concept, or about the data evaluation concerning the movement of the users in the prescribed area according to a specific BTS (base trans-receiver station) to BTS relationship or MSC management system.
It may further help to enhance the capability of the system concerning the infrastructure or the optimal utilization of the available resources. All these measures would lead to help in enhancing the span of future services, including different promotional parameters and comprehensive planning procedures for the efficient and optimal services to all the customers in different areas of the range of frequency. So, the usage of this information is further helpful to maximize the profit and capability measure of a system and users.
For instance, the following are the sets of points presenting the big data of caller or slot availability. This is for the radio resource configuration; the diagram below shows cell availability for the set of available data in a particular scenario, with the features defined in the figure for a scenario. The infrastructure of the system in which the prescribed scenario for the comprehensive analysis is applied is as described in the figure for the average ratio of the successful RRC connection.
The user equipment with multiple transmitted signals, the base station (BS), resource indicators (RRIs) and radio resources is prominent in the establishment of the connection or connectivity at every stage for a request. Hence, CSI has multiple parts of RRIs [16]. The processing of the request, resource availability, and CSI is related to the establishment of the connection. Furthermore, multi beam-forming models in the cited approach also provide an intuitive solution to resolve the complexity, pre-coding and symbol vector calculation schemes at block level [16].

3.6. Typical Attainable Sum Information Rate

In the observation, the performance of recommended aspects was measured. Consider the systematic design in view of the following limitations. Assume that 4 antennas (Mt = 4) are available and transmitted through these antennas. There are Mr = 4 users. There is a channel link among transmitter I and user M generated as an uncorrelated Rayleigh fading. Therefore, the mean value of channel gain is proportional to four for in-service transmitters and 2 (two) for the transmitters that are interfering. In view of details about the pattern and behaviour of different heuristic beam-forming techniques, we designed a case of four (04) users MISO having interference channels of value Ni = 4 antennas and having a specification of each base station with coordination of interference. The total values of vectors of the channel are calculated and created as uncorrelated Rayleigh fading, and the average value of channel gains approaches to all of the available base stations is calculated. The results of the mentioned description are depicted in the figure listed below for the attainable total information rate’s average value. Relatively, at less SNR, MRT is fine; moreover, the XFBF is even better at increased SNR.
The significant aspect needed to focus more is SLNR–MAX; this approach is better and more diversified and can be comparable for design at various types of schemes. The mentioned approach has united all benefits of ZF and MRT asymptotically. In addition to that, it outperforms them at a middle SNR value with a nearby value preoccupied incredibly near the optimal resolution. The situation is explained with imitation having two (2) and ten (10) antennas. The contrast and comparison were observed for the optimization of sum rate corresponding to linear beam-forming along with various heuristic techniques of beam-forming. MRT, ZFBF, and SLMR-MAX are all (03) approaches. Here is an instance explained already that is provided to simulate beneath mentioned factors. For instance, there is a transmit antenna Mt = 2; Xt = 2 antennas for each base station have the total number of users kr = 2; then, the results are as mentioned in the assessment and the evaluation of ZF, MRT, and SLNR-Max. Optimal beam-forming is carried out according to specifications in the optimization and do not lose for each user [19]. This includes the mean power transmission, azimuth post-azimuth, distribution, and several other factors. The focus is on the central significance; however, one can envision the properties of the beam-forming. Primary parameters for the optimal beam-forming are illustrated in the figure below.

3.7. Scenario for Multiple Antennas (Nt and Kt)

For example, in Figure 1, N = 4 and the scenario is tested for users’ locations with respect to antennas tilt and directivity and BF. We concluded channel recognition in the value of average total information rate in a channel of MISO-4, interference channel is represented as a task of power transmit [24].
The Figure 5 and Figure 6 reflect the utilization of the available resources. The significant chunk of the resources is available for the 3G and 4G/LTE technology. The available resources are specified as described in the figures. Furthermore, Figure 1 and Figure 2 depicted as MRT and ZFBF are reflecting drastically improved manners and are adequate beam-forming direction at high and low SNR levels. An extraordinary aspect is mentioned as SLNR-MAX is displaying an improved enactment in the entire collection of SNR [25]. Moreover, directive beams by using massive MIMO and division in small cells are two extensive approaches and provide a significant solution in this regard. In our proposed work, it is providing a practical scenario for efficient solutions to the prescribed problem. It provides a simulated result for minimizing the consumption of total power. The practically tested scenario may be further extended and helpful in the future.

4. Data Analysis in Practical System

Here is a demonstration of a practical scenario for the systematic organization of the components in a communication system. The analysis below is based on the five thousand rows’ entries for a fully functional telecom system with multiple attributes, as elaborated in the form of graphs below in Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5. Figure 2 shows the mode system that presents the allocation of the resources in the system. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the parametric distribution of the available resources like an antenna, its tilt, azimuth and post-azimuth values and directivity. Furthermore, the features like latitude and longitude are also of immense importance. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the graphical representation of the specific chunk for the overall sampling of five thousand rows, along with the features mentioned in the figures. Further Figure 5, illustrating a view specific to the beam-forming, such as tower height, antenna height, azimuth and tilt of the antenna. Every feature is distinct concerning the features, and orientation is tested at multiple sites for the same features.
In time division duplex systems, massive MIMO is the utmost viable when the reciprocity of the channel exploitation takes place. The user terminal sent pilot tones to provide the basis for channel estimation. Such systems involve additional antennas but no additional overhead. The orthogonal pilot sequence number is limited and cannot necessarily be used in the adjacent cells again, for any given coherence time [26]. In a typical real model scenario of high mobility channels and massive MIMO channels, it is observed that conventional models of MIMO channels are not fully functional relativ to massive MIMO channel [26,27]. In the comparison of wireless low mobility channels with high-mobility channels, it can be inferred that high mobility channels have far better dynamics, and fading also increases. One challenging characterization is observed for channels with high mobility [15,28].
OFDM has several advantages, but despite these, there are some notable drawbacks. Among these shortcomings, one of the primary contests is the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). The parallel sub and symbol synthesis of multiple carriers result in PAPR, which points towards the transmitters and receivers components that must have a dynamic and wide range. Signals such as those with high PAPR will not distort. Another issue that will occur for OFDM is the strict orthogonality requirement between the sub-carriers, and orthogonality can be disturbed due to the phase noise and interference of frequency [29]. These mentioned problems that lead to complications in the design of the system and subsequently are a subject for intensive research.
Improving Energy Efficiency in LTE by Antenna Muting: in massive MIMO systems, there is too much emphasis on the substantial capacity gains arising due to a large number of a dense array of antennas. In such architecture, outdoor BSs must be having a large number of antennas arrays with some antenna elements. The connectivity to BS (base station) will be made via optical fibres distributed around the cell, and the DAS and massive MIMO are the critical factors for this basic architectural design and implementation. For Outdoor mobile users, there will be a limited number of antenna elements, but they will be able to collaborate for configuring a reasonably large form of a virtual dense antenna array. It will all be combined with BS antenna arrays that will give rise to virtual massive MIMO links. One should stipulate that the implementation on practical bases is viewed as antennas that will be outnumbered, and similarly be connected to outside of all the construction for communication with outdoor BSs or distributed antenna elements of BSs with a possibility with line of sight (LoS) modules [13,30].
Large antenna arrays, as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 are capable of linking to the wireless access points inside the structure of communicating with covered users. There is an overlaid system of small cells access points in the LTE communication to reduce a load of traffic from the base station. Figure 7 shows the establishment of an exemplary connection at different intervals of the time. The orange and blue lines in the figure show ratios at different time intervals. The fact is that if most of the data traffic is localized and based on the request of low mobility users, it will decrease the distance between user and transmitters; hence, it implies that there will be low power utilization and much higher efficiency.
This will surely raise the setup cost in the short term; however, it will ominously refine the cell spectral efficiency, average throughput, data rate and energy efficiency of the cellular system in future perspective. However, the problem is that it will result in a heterogeneous network and this is quite a complicated task to control inter-user interface in such a system. By using heterogeneous cellular architecture, there is a separate setup fertility for both indoor and outdoor users with large antenna arrays installed outside constructions; several tools can be exploited that are appropriate for short-range communications, and are realized previously for other systems with high data rates. In some instances that include Wi-Fi, femtocell, and ultra-wideband (UWB), etc. have large applications for transmission of large data [31]. In small scale networks and massive MIMO, there is an enormous number of advances in dynamic portions. However, because of complexity and dense arrays, this demanded extra hardware and hereafter the size of system surges. In order to accomplish the call, it is desired to be installed rationally and efficiently under optimized energy. In general interpretation, in case it gazes at massive MIMO approaches, they are consuming much advanced spectra; data rate and energy proficiencies are also significant.
This can lead to a surge in the number of lively users in an operative manner in case of an increase in a larger number than the number of antennas and deal with a high number of services to the outsized user. The substantial technique to progress data rate is spatial multiplexing that is completed without the usage of abundant frequency resources and keeping the alike complete transmit power [16].
The above figures show a scenario for the multiple antenna parameters relationship for a system in practical implementation. The effect of these parameters is clear and distinct in terms of the minor tilt, whether it is post-azimuth or re-azimuth. Latitude and longitude are of fundamental importance for the reasonable directivity.
Both MIMO and antenna are essential parameters for a specific and reasonable compact availability of the service for the directivity. In a situation when required data rate or load is lower, and one antenna can be enough to fulfil the functionality, it requires the transmission of reference signal on ports of all cell-dependent antennas. In the viewpoint of saving power, it demands us to activate multiple amplifiers for power in case of traffic load or data rate or both situations, while in case of low load hours or condition when it’s not the peak service hours, the level of inter-cell inference is observed low. TX-diversity gain offered by the antennas of two base stations may not be required often. Moreover, in a condition when there is a low load, all units of radio function vary below from an expected optimal output level of power; therefore, it is required to boost the power of radio units in assuming that some radio units might be muted. When observing the muting of any antenna, it can have an effect of loss in power [12]. By considering mathematical assumption, each antenna adds 1 W of power based on it then decreased transmission from 2 W below to 1 W optimmal output power of every PA is at minimum 2 W; in this case, loss can be recovered. Generally, it is often feasible to incase the power consumed on the typical channel, as just a small fraction of the sum of existing power. Muting the algorithm of antennas is broad in number, and evaluated them for the 4TX situation; it is observed to be superior to switch among each antenna, which is operative and all four (04) antennas operative instead of applying to adoptively mute or unmute each antenna at one instance of time. It is normal to consider the observed traffic as a burst in its typical situation. There can be two situations, first is cell is empty, and the other is a vast quantity of bits which are in waiting for the queue for transmission.
When an increased number of antennas are available, optimality increases due to enhancement in the availability of resources. However, this situation can possibly be extended more in the case of small cell base stations and users in a specific territory. Pros of optimal beam-forming approach are the optimization of signal power reception at a low rate of SNR, decrease in the interference leakage at high value of SNR range and the formation of a balance among the confliction at intermediate or moderate SNRs’ ranges. Possibly it can be extended in upcoming for contests such as imperfect robust CSIs and multi-streams for multiple users. Previous challenges are, for example, inter-cell interference (ICI), path loss and many more, where terminals of the user are situated far away from the located base station. They are vulnerable to obtaining heavily attenuated signals which lead to the issue of signal attenuation and outcome in the path loss. Transmission from BS to other cells leads to ICI. The option of the multi-cell for such a case is also a handy and exciting research area. Presented here is an optimal solution for the efficient exploitation of resources and compared different beam-forming techniques.

3D Beam Forming

The directivity and 3D beam-forming are based mainly on the features, such as azimuth. The charts below in figures in circular plots for the azimuth show a comprehensive comparison for the multiple values. The tilt is showing that for any tilt the directivity varies. The variation is mainly based on the post and pre tilted values. The directivity in an overall way is associated with the tilt and also with the features of the antenna distance from the ground. The dimensionality and directivity for 3D typically mean Ω (the azimuth angle), ϕ (the elevation angle) and r (the distance). One can control the azimuth angle with the help of an appropriate phase shift between the horizontal and array elements, ϕ by applying an appropriate phase shift between the vertical ant array elements, and r by controlling simultaneous usage of no of array elements. The graphical representation presents a practical implementation for the multiple tilt values at various angles and heights of the towers and antennas. It is worth noting that a few users are in a direct line of sight. So, the importance of an angular beam in this regard may be of less importance. In a case using the densification technique such as a complex and dense network, then it is probably of more value to use the 3DBF. It is useful for the extremely dense network if a view finds an optimized resource scenario concerning the user’s availability. However, it is interesting to optimize 2D and 3D beam-forming with limited users to calculate power constraints, and a comprehensive solution is to take an average azimuth for various distance and user ratio. Because for the dense homogeneous scenario, this is the most viable, comprehensive and efficient way to manage BF in the prescribed scenario. Furthermore, some pre-coding techniques for BF are also given in [16].

5. Conclusions

The major objective of beam-forming is the optimization of signal power at reception end with the decrease of interference leakage at the increased value of SNR range, at a low value of SNR and provision of equilibrium between the confliction at intermediate SNRs or moderate ranges. In the future time, it can be enhanced and further extended for contests and research problems like imperfect robust CSIs and multi streams for the multi-users. There are some previous challenges like inter-cell interference (ICI) and path loss. In a situation base station that is installed a distance away from the base station point, there is always the possibility of high attenuated signals that may create an issue of signal attenuation. This produces the problem of path loss. When the base station is transmitting to other cells, it can cause ICI; one solution for this is the multi-cell, which is an optimal resource too, and a better option overall.

Author Contributions

Z.H.Q. and M.I. proposed the research conceptualization and methodology. The technical and theoretical framework was prepared by T.A. and A.A. The technical review and improvement were performed by G.A. and A.G. The overall technical support, guidance, and project administration were done by W.G., W.C. and A.M.M. The editing and, finally, proofreading was done by U.D. and S.H. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by the AGH University of Science and Technology, grant No.


The authors acknowledge the support from the Deanship of Scientific Research, Najran University. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF is low for less antennas N (N = 4) and user function SNR, (signal to noise ratio received at the user end) shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and transmit MMSE performs best.
Figure 1. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF is low for less antennas N (N = 4) and user function SNR, (signal to noise ratio received at the user end) shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and transmit MMSE performs best.
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Figure 2. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF increase with antennas N (N = 6), with ZFBF and MRT compensate against average SNR and user function SNR (signal to noise ratio received at the user end) shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and transmit MMSE performs best.
Figure 2. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF increase with antennas N (N = 6), with ZFBF and MRT compensate against average SNR and user function SNR (signal to noise ratio received at the user end) shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and transmit MMSE performs best.
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Figure 3. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF with antennas N = 25. ZFBF and MRT compensate against average SNR and user function SNR shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and ZFBF compensate with transmit MMSE and increase with densification of network antennas.
Figure 3. Performance of Transmit MMSE, MRT and ZFBF with antennas N = 25. ZFBF and MRT compensate against average SNR and user function SNR shows that high SNR limit the interuser interface and ZFBF compensate with transmit MMSE and increase with densification of network antennas.
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Figure 4. Comparative analysis on 15 MHz-bands for 4G technology with antennas height and tower heights in meters, with longitudinal variations for the antennas.
Figure 4. Comparative analysis on 15 MHz-bands for 4G technology with antennas height and tower heights in meters, with longitudinal variations for the antennas.
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Figure 5. The allocation of the resources of the architecture for the reference network data features.
Figure 5. The allocation of the resources of the architecture for the reference network data features.
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Figure 6. The reference signal received power (RSRP) efficiency for our tested scenarios distribution percentage.
Figure 6. The reference signal received power (RSRP) efficiency for our tested scenarios distribution percentage.
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Figure 7. Radio resource connection (RRC) establishment percentage with the user equipment’s nodes efficiency of the tested architecture with various intervals connectivity ratio.
Figure 7. Radio resource connection (RRC) establishment percentage with the user equipment’s nodes efficiency of the tested architecture with various intervals connectivity ratio.
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Figure 8. Comparison of effects of azimuth and post-azimuth tilt with respect to tower and antenna heights calculated for the test scenario.
Figure 8. Comparison of effects of azimuth and post-azimuth tilt with respect to tower and antenna heights calculated for the test scenario.
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Figure 9. Comparison of effects of azimuth and mechanical with post-azimuth and post mechanical tilts for the antenna height from the ground for the test scenario.
Figure 9. Comparison of effects of azimuth and mechanical with post-azimuth and post mechanical tilts for the antenna height from the ground for the test scenario.
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Figure 10. Signal control analysis with electrical and post-electrical to control the phase of signal and post-mechanical tilt to control the overall segments and coverage overlaps.
Figure 10. Signal control analysis with electrical and post-electrical to control the phase of signal and post-mechanical tilt to control the overall segments and coverage overlaps.
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Qaisar, Z.H.; Irfan, M.; Ali, T.; Ahmad, A.; Ali, G.; Glowacz, A.; Glowacz, W.; Caesarendra, W.; Mashraqi, A.M.; Draz, U.; et al. Effective Beamforming Technique Amid Optimal Value for Wireless Communication. Electronics 2020, 9, 1869.

AMA Style

Qaisar ZH, Irfan M, Ali T, Ahmad A, Ali G, Glowacz A, Glowacz W, Caesarendra W, Mashraqi AM, Draz U, et al. Effective Beamforming Technique Amid Optimal Value for Wireless Communication. Electronics. 2020; 9(11):1869.

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Qaisar, Zahid Hussain, Muhamamd Irfan, Tariq Ali, Ashfaq Ahmad, Ghulam Ali, Adam Glowacz, Witold Glowacz, Wahyu Caesarendra, Aisha Mousa Mashraqi, Umar Draz, and et al. 2020. "Effective Beamforming Technique Amid Optimal Value for Wireless Communication" Electronics 9, no. 11: 1869.

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